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The “Little Horn” of Daniel chapter 7, a review of a paper by Clifton Emahiser

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The “Little Horn” of Daniel chapter 7, a review of a paper by Clifton Emahiser

In his monthly Watchman’s Teaching Letters for 2002, Clifton Emahiser had sought to explain elements of the books of the prophet Daniel and the Revelation in an endeavor to refute the fallacies of what we call Futurism and Preterism, and to demonstrate the importance of the historical, or Historicist interpretation of prophecy as a key to understanding the Word of Yahweh our God. Doing that, Clifton had many other digressions as he progressed, and he discussed the two different descriptions of a “little horn” in Daniel in different ways. This shorter paper, The "Little Horn" of Daniel 7:8, was compiled from those studies.

Among denominational Christians, there are many foolish ways to interpret Scripture, and many ways to describe or label them. There is futurism, full preterism, partial preterism, millennialism or chiliasm, amillennialism or chillegorism, premillennialism and postmillennialism, and some of these overlap or encompass one another. There are even panmillennialists, who apparently believe that in the end, eschatology is not important at all because evidently, they also believe that everyone gets a participation trophy from God.

Nearly all of these labels mean nothing to us, as they only represent insidious refinements of three basic ideas. To describe them briefly, futurists maintain that all so-called “end times” prophecy is yet to take place, generally over a seven-year span at some distant time in the future. But preterists believe that all prophecy was fulfilled by 70 AD, and therefore I can only assume that they also think that ever since then Jesus has been hanging around in some sort of limbo helplessly waiting for us to come to Him. But historicists understand that prophecy has been unfolding all along, and as time has passed it has been incrementally fulfilled. As various of the apostles had testified on more than one occasion, we are already in the so-called “end times”, or the “last days”, ever since the first incarnation of the Christ. These descriptions may not be perfect or satisfy everyone, but they are generally accurate.

TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White, Part 14

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TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White, Part 14

Here we discuss points # 38 and 39 of TruthVid’s 100 Proofs, which concerns Ezekiel's lamentations of Tyre and the minor prophets. William Finck’s prepared notes are found below.

(38) Ezekiel’s Lamentations over Tyre

In all of the ancient Greek accounts, beginning with Herodotus, the Dardans, and therefore the Trojans, the Leleges, Carians and Milesians, the Cilicians, and the Phoenicians were all related, and many of these groups were described as having originated in Crete. In the Greek myths from as early as the Iliad, Europa was the daughter of Phoenix, the son of Agenor king of Tyre, and the sister of Cadmus the Phoenician, who founded the Greek city of Thebes. Europa was the mother of Sarpedon, the legendary founder of Miletus, a notable city of the Carians, and Sarpedon was the father of Minos, the famous king of the Cretans from which we get the name Minoans. Herodotus attested that all of the colonies of the Phoenicians had come from Tyre. But in the Bible, while Tyre was within the inheritance of Asher the Septuagint version indicates that the walled cities of the Tyrians would be inherited by the tribe of Naphtali. Later, where Hiram king of Tyre, who was subject to David and Solomon, had sent to Solomon a craftsman to help with the design of the temple, Flavius Josephus wrote in Book 8 of his Antiquities: “76 Now Solomon sent for a craftsman out of Tyre, whose name was Hiram; he was by birth of the tribe of Naphtali, on the mother's side (for she was of that tribe;) but his father was Ur, of the family of the Israelites.”

The modern Jews have always disclaimed the Tyrians as Israelites. They must do that, because otherwise their entire narrative concerning their own identity disintegrates. In the Book of Judges there is the song of Deborah after the victory of Israel over the Canaanites in the north, and she asked why Dan remained in ships and Asher abode in his breaches, which are his port cities, rather than come to the fight. Four centuries later, the census of David counted the Israelites in Tyre and Sidon just as in every other city in Israel. The relationship of David and Hiram, the king of Tyre, shows that Hiram was subservient to David and complied with him happily. Solomon gave Hiram cities in Galilee as a gift, so that also shows that Hiram was an Israelite, but here in Ezekiel there will be no doubt that the kings of Tyre were of Israel.

On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 15: The Prayer for Wisdom

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On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 15: The Prayer for Wisdom

Throughout the first eight chapters of the Wisdom of Solomon we have seen several changes of subject. First, Solomon introduced wisdom as the Remedy for Sin and Death, and then he contrasted the attitudes and behavior of impious, or ungodly, men to the attitudes and behavior of the righteous, while concluding that the righteous man stands as a barrier to the designs of the ungodly, and as a result the ungodly would persecute and even seek to destroy the righteous. Doing this, we believe that Solomon was also prophesying a Portrait of the Messiah. Then Solomon offered reassurance to the righteous, as their fate is In the Hand of God while impious men shall inevitably suffer for their foolishness. So after describing the punishments of Everlasting Contempt which await the impious and contrasting them with The Reward of the Righteous, Solomon began to present the wisdom which comes from God in a way that it should appeal to men, and especially to kings, as he being a king was addressing the future kings of Israel.

So Solomon set out to describe The Wisdom of Kings, The Origin of Wisdom and The Beauty of Wisdom, portraying Wisdom as a woman whose allures should cause men to pursue her and desire her for themselves. Then finally, in Wisdom chapter 8, describing The Rewards of Wisdom, Solomon reflects back on his youth to the time when he had first prayed for wisdom, exhorting God for His wisdom. Therefore as we continue our commentary on the Wisdom of Solomon with chapter 9, which begins with a very lengthy prayer, we must note that the author presents the prayer as the very prayer which Solomon had made in his youth, when upon becoming king of Israel he had sought wisdom rather than his own worldly magnification.

To us it is not an extraordinary phenomenon, that the Wisdom of Solomon was considered a part of the Christian Scriptures by the earliest Christians. The book is listed in the canon found in the Muratorian fragment, which dates to about 170 AD, and we are confident that it certainly does belong in our canon, where we would place it alongside Ecclesiastes. It expresses things that are later revealed in the New Testament Scriptures, which are not so obvious in the Old Testament. It also serves to explain statements which are found in the New Testament Scriptures that are not direct quotations from the Old Testament, in a manner that reveals their continuity with the Old Testament.

But to us, it is also not extraordinary that Christians of later periods have ultimately rejected the Wisdom of Solomon. While its status as canon was often disputed by Roman churchmen, even as early as the late 4th century, the Roman and later Greek Orthodox churches had nevertheless retained the book. But modern Protestants have relegated it to apocryphal status, if they have not rejected it entirely. However in any event, even if they retained the book, the Wisdom of Solomon was evidently never taught in any of the universal churches. If they had truly learned the wisdom of Solomon, they would not have been universal.

TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White, Part 13

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TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White, Part 13

Here we discuss # 37 of TruthVid’s 100 Proofs, which concerns the prophet Isaiah. William Finck’s prepared notes are found below.

The Christian faith was originally called catholic because it was received whole, meaning that both Old and New Testament Scriptures were recognized as the Word of God. The Roman Church later perverted the meaning of the term catholic and used it to describe the application, rather than the reception of the faith. The true faith in Christ must include a belief in both the Old and New Testaments.

The writings of the prophets were preserved because as men realized that their words were true, because short-term prophecies were fulfilled, their value was recognized and the fact that their words did indeed represent the Word of God was laid bare. If the short-term prophecies were fulfilled, then the long-term prophecies would also be fulfilled. Many of those prophecies were of Christ Himself, so when He came, He announced that He came to fulfill the words of the prophets.

But many of those prophecies also speak of reconciliation with Israel, and what Yahweh God would do with Israel in the future. If the apostles did not go to the twelve tribes Israel, then God is an utter failure. So the apostles went to Mesopotamia and Europe while professing that they were going to the twelve tribes of Israel. The Roman Catholic tales of apostles in non-White or marginally White places are all unfounded fables used to support early universalist inclusivity.

On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 14: The Rewards of Wisdom

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On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 14: The Rewards of Wisdom

In these last few chapters of Wisdom, Solomon has explained that the wisdom of which he speaks is the wisdom which comes from God, and he related it explicitly to the commandments of God. Doing that he had also explained that such is the wisdom by which kings should justly rule, specifically speaking of the future kings of Israel who would be expected to have the commandments of God. Having characterized that wisdom as a woman, he then described her beauty, and now, proceeding with Wisdom chapter 8, he continues by describing her rewards.

Discussing his description of The Beauty of Wisdom, we left off with Wisdom chapter 8 at verse 9 where Solomon had written that on account of that beauty, “Therefore I purposed to take her to me to live with me, knowing that she would be a counsellor of good things, and a comfort in cares and grief.” However in Ecclesiastes chapter 1, Solomon seemed to have sought to justify his purposeful venture into folly by stating “18 For in much wisdom is much grief: and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.” On the surface, one may suspect a conflict in the two statements, although it is evident that both statements are indeed true. In much wisdom there is much sorrow, as one perceives all of the evil around him. However in wisdom there is also comfort in spite of the grief which it causes, as Solomon had ended Ecclesiastes with an assurance that God will indeed judge men for their works.

On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 13: The Beauty of Wisdom

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On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 13: The Beauty of Wisdom

Making these presentations on the Wisdom of Solomon, we have already presented more than a few arguments in support of our profession that Solomon was indeed the author of this work. However in some of those arguments, it might appear as if we may claim that Wisdom was originally written in Greek, and that is not necessarily true. In earlier portions of this commentary, and namely in Part 2 where we had addressed many criticisms of the work, several times we made references to “the author or translator” of the work. We will not lay claim to know with certainty what was the original language of Wisdom, as there is no definite evidence. But if the original language was indeed Hebrew, it cannot be proven conclusively that the work was not translated by a learned scribe at a time much later than Solomon’s own.

At the end of Wisdom chapter 6, Solomon had promised to disclose the Origin of Wisdom, which he then did here in chapter 7. However first he exhorted his intended readers, who were primarily the future kings of the children of Israel, as to why they should listen to his instruction. Doing that, he then described Wisdom as emanating from God, and began to describe her virtues, depicting Wisdom as a woman to be adored for her beauty. Now here at the end of Wisdom chapter 7, Solomon will continue to profess that the wisdom of which he speaks is indeed the wisdom of God, and continues with an anthropomorphism describing the beauty of Wisdom.

TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White, Part 12

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TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White, Part 12

Here we cover proofs 34 through 37 of TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White. These are from the prophets Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel. William Finck’s prepared notes are found below.

(34) Daniel - The beast empires prophesied to come after Nebuchadnezzar, and where they ruled

While the other prophets of the Bible and the history which they had foretold are all proven to be true in their own ways, nowhere among the Old Testament prophets is history foretold in such a clearly identifiable manner as in Daniel. For that reason, Biblical critics always try to push Daniel forward to a date much later than the time in which the book itself professes that it was written. But internal evidence in the book helps serve to prove that Daniel wrote it when the book claims it was written, in the 6th century BC, because Daniel has been justified by archaeology.

For example, in Daniel chapter 4 we read the words of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, where it says “30 The king spake, and said, Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?” Nechadnezzar II was the king of Babylon for a long time, from about 605 BC to 562 BC. After him the Babylonian empire lasted for only another 23 years, until it was conquered by the Persians in 539 BC. But from the time when the Greeks started writing history, starting with Herodotus, the ancient historians who mention Babylon all believed that the city was built by Semiramis, who was a semi-mythical figure apparently based on an Assyrian queen who lived in the 8th century BC. In the Persian period, about 100 years after Nebuchadnezzar, Herodotus even visited the city, and described its wonders in his writing. But he never even mentioned Nebuchadnezzar.

On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 12: The Origin of Wisdom

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On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 12: The Origin of Wisdom

In our last presentation on the Wisdom of Solomon, The Wisdom of Kings, which discussed the first 21 verses of Wisdom chapter 6, we showed how Solomon was actually making an exhortation, although it was expressed as a prescient admonition, that the kings of Israel rule the people righteously by following the counsel and keeping the commandments of God. To Solomon, this was wisdom, and he admonished them that they would suffer trials if they did not heed his warning. He then advised them, according to the commandments of God, to keep holiness holily, that doing so they themselves would be judged holy. Since he was speaking to kings whom he had expected to keep the law, which, as he was writing, can only include the kings of the future children of Israel, then the holiness to which he referred is the separation and distinguishing of Israel that is demanded in the law.

Solomon then advised these kings that if they sought wisdom earnestly, they would find it, that it would not be far from them. Since Solomon was speaking of the wisdom which is from God, his words evoke Paul’s address to the Athenians in Acts chapter 17, where Paul told them that God Himself had given all nations of man, which is properly Adamic man, the opportunity to seek Him, and “27… If surely then they would seek after Him then they would find Him, and indeed He being not far from each one of us.” Then again we read in Hebrews chapter 11: “6 But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.” In like manner, Solomon said in verse 13 of this chapter, as we would translate it, that Wisdom “… comes upon those who desire to know her beforehand.”

TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White, Part 11

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TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White, Part 11

Here we cover proofs 32 and 33 of TruthVid's 100 Proofs that the Israelites were White. William Finck’s prepared notes are found below.

(32) Josephus's books - What we can learn from Josephus's multiple books

Flavius Josephus wrote four books which can with all certainty be attributed to him. According to one of those books, which is a short autobiography, he was from a priestly family of the tribe of Levi, and in his younger years he spent about three years as an Essene. Ultimately, however, Josephus became a Pharisee, but that alone does not make him an evil man. The parties of the Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes were political as much as they were religious, and if a man wanted to have any influence or any role in the political life of Judaea at that time, then being an Essene was a dead end, and the only other reasonable choice for a pious man was to join the Pharisees. However while the Essenes were excluded from the political scene in Judaea, Josephus did attest that of each of the sects in Judaea, they were the only ones who were all “Jews [or Judahites] by birth”, as he write in Wars Book 2. There he wrote describing the Judaean sects and said “119… the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews [Judaeans or Judahites] by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have.”

Having informed us that of the religious sects in Judaea only the Essenes were Judaeans by birth, it is evident that Josephus was also informing us that the other sects were accepting converts of the other nations, namely the Idumaeans. So Josephus, being a Pharisee, it is evident that his religious learning and interpretations of ancient history and Scripture must have been in conformance with the teachings of his party. It is clear in the New Testament records that these parties were distinguished by various religious beliefs. For that reason, I do not give much credibility to Josephus’ interpretations of Genesis or other early accounts found in Scripture, as they would naturally reflect the leaven of the Pharisees which Christ Himself had condemned. However in spite of that, I believe Josephus himself was an honest man and earnestly sought to tell the truth about his nation, in spite of his biases, and in spite of things concerning which he was either naive or ignorant.

On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 11: The Wisdom of Kings

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On the Wisdom of Solomon, Part 11: The Wisdom of Kings

Discussing the latter portion of Wisdom chapter 5 in our last presentation on the Wisdom of Solomon here, which was titled Who are the World?, we had observed that Wisdom describes the promised vengeance of Yahweh God against His enemies in different terms, but in a manner which is completely agreeable in meaning with prophecies of that same vengeance which are found in Micah chapter 4 and Revelation chapter 18. Once we understand what Solomon had meant where he said that Yahweh would “make the creature his weapon for the revenge of his enemies”, as he himself defines the creature, or creation, as the twelve tribes of the children of Israel organized under the law in Wisdom chapter 19, then we can also understand that he was describing that same phenomenon which was prophesied in different terms in Micah chapter 4 as a call to the children of Israel to “arise and thresh”, and in Revelation chapter 18 as a call to the people of God to “come out of her My people” and then to turn and “Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.” So all three passages have virtually the same meaning, in the same prophetic context.

So in the Wisdom of Solomon we see what Micah had also prophesied, and what Christ Himself confirms in chapter 18 of His Revelation: that the children of Israel themselves shall ultimately be the instruments which are employed by Yahweh God in the execution of His vengeance against His enemies, and that is the day which all true Christians should await with anticipation. Likewise, Paul had told the Corinthians that they should be ready to revenge all disobedience, once their own obedience is fulfilled (2 Corinthians 10:6). Noticing features such as this in Wisdom is an important step to recognizing the veracity of the work. Ultimately, the proof of a prophet is found in the fulfillment of the prophecy. But in this case, the prophecy is still anticipated, so the fulfillment is not yet realized. However if the author of Wisdom prophesied things which are also found in the words of later prophets, and then in the words of Christ Himself, although the language used to describe those things is markedly different, the prophet is nonetheless verified, because the Word of God has confirmed the prophecy for him.