The Race of Genesis 10
By William R. Finck Jr. © 2006
[Essay revised for podcast presentation, October 15th, 2011; the PDF file linked below is now current.]
Don't let the antichrists fool you, Genesis Chapter 10 begins the historically verifiable Biblical narrative.
This is a lengthy paper which describes the nature and historicity of the Genesis 10 Nations of the Bible. It presents a Biblical weltanschauung of White origins and history. We are only going to travel the history of this planet once. There are no second chances. One history, one Bible, one trek from the garden of Eden to the gathering of the Wheat. If we find not the foundations of our race in Genesis chapter 10, then our history – our Bible – is absolutely unreliable and we are mired in futility, with no purpose for living and no record of our origins, and no hope of a future. I often begin oral explanations of Genesis chapter 10 by quoting Epictetus, borrowed from the opening pages of Thayer’s Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament άρχὴ παιδεύσεως ἡ τῶν ỏνομάτων ἐπίσκεψις, or “the beginning of learning is the investigation of names”, and how I must agree with Epictetus!
The chronology of the Greek Septuagint translation of the Bible may be much more reliable than the Masoretic Text, and according to many (i.e. Adam Rutherford) from that source the date of the flood of Noah may be fixed around 3245 B.C. I would purport that Genesis chapter 10 is a snapshot, a profile of those tribes of which our race – the family of Noah – first blossomed into in the first few centuries after the Deluge. I would think that, five thousand years ago, one would find no “Aryan” or “Caucasian” civilization outside of these Genesis chapter 10 people, and that all of these people are indeed “Aryan” or “Caucasian”. Of course it cannot be discounted, that during the nearly 1800 years before the deluge, some Adamite groups or individuals may have wandered off, departing from the land of the flood and in that manner escaping destruction, yet any of these have no definite history which is known to us today.
It is certainly no mistake that, as it may be made evident here, so many of the tribes listed in Genesis 10 are found with names so similar to those gleaned from the earliest secular records of our race. Although it is frustrating that some of the Genesis chapter 10 people seem to have vanished at an early time, too early to be identified in secular records uncovered thus far – that I have been able to access – surely enough of these peoples may be identified that one may see the truth of these words concerning Genesis chapter 10 fully demonstrated.
Acts 17:26: “And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;” (KJV).
Deuteronomy 32:8-9: “When the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of Adam, He set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel. For Yahweh’s portion is His people; Jacob is the lot of His inheritance.”
Scripture must always be understood within the context of other scripture, and so Acts 17:26 must be viewed through the filter provided at Deuteronomy 32:8. Even most Bible cross-references relate these two verses. Here it should become evident that whenever the Bible discusses “the nations” it intends only those nations descended from Noah, listed in Genesis chapter 10, and originally all of those nations were of the same race. An example of “the times before appointed” in relation to the Genesis chapter 10 nations is found at Jeremiah 46:17, where the implication is that Egypt was finished as a nation, and although in Roman times the Greeks in Egypt maintained a high level of civilization for several centuries, history surely proves Jeremiah correct concerning the Egyptians themselves. Another example lies in Daniel chapter 2, and the vision of a succession of world empires given there, along with the parallel vision described in Daniel chapter 7.
Since these nations, as we shall see, were dispersed into a wide geographical area, reading Deuteronomy 32:8 along with II Sam. 7:10 indicates that a good deal of land was reserved uninhabited by Yahweh to be eventually used by the children of Israel. It is also clear that this land is outside of Palaestine. Ancient history and archaeology reveal that the Israelites eventually settled much of Europe. Before one can understand the importance of the promise of preservation (often translated “salvation”) for Israel, uttered in many places in the Old Testament, one must understand the history and fate of the rest of these nations of Adam which are listed in Genesis chapter 10.
The Japhethites: Genesis 10:2-5
Gomer (Genesis 10:2). Difficult to document, the historian Josephus made the mistake of associating Gomer with the Kelts, an error probably derived from an early Greek name for them, Κιμμέριοι, and many of his copyists have followed this mistake, which is based solely upon this phonetic similarity. That the Kelts actually sprung from a portion of the children of Israel deported by the Assyrians (see Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets by E. Raymond Capt) is evident from many factors, including their late (7th century B.C.) appearance in history, their location today, and their role in history in fulfillment of many of the prophecies concerning Israel: a topic beyond the scope of this discussion. Simply note that the “Galatians” of Paul’s epistle are Kelts, and Paul certainly was writing to Israelites [which the contents of that epistle proves]. By contrast, in Ezekiel chapter 38, Gomer is allied with those who are in opposition to the children of Israel, which makes it easy to accept A. Koestler’s statements concerning Togarmah, outlined below. Some commentators feel that Hosea’s taking of a wife named Gomer (Hos. 1:3) is an indication that Gomer was one of the tribes that the Israelites were dispersed among after their deportation by the Assyrians. This hypothesis is quite credible, though I have not been able to positively identify any tribe of the secular records with Gomer. [Gomer is not found in Assyrian inscriptions. It can be established that Khumri, the Assyrian name for the children of Israel whom they deported into northern Mesopotamia, is the source for the Greek name Κιμμέριοι, or Kimmerians.]
The sons of Gomer (Genesis 10:3). Arthur Koestler, a jew who writes from a jewish perspective, claims that Togarmah is the common ancestor of the Uigur, Dursu, Avars, Huns, Basilii, Tarniakh, Khazars (see Cush below), Zagora, Bulgars and Sabir, on p. 72 of his book The Thirteenth Tribe. In Biblical prophecy, it is seen that along with Gomer, Togarmah is allied against the children of Israel in the last days, at Ezekiel 38:6, where he is placed in the far north, and surely among the Asiatic hordes of the former Soviet Union. Riphath, or Diphath, is unmentioned elsewhere in the Bible, except for a copy of Genesis chapter 10 found at I Chronicles chapter 1. Ashkenaz, however, is more easily identified. Mentioned at Jeremiah 51:27 along with Ararat and Minni (both part of modern Armenia), Ashkenaz is there shown to be not far from the ancient land of the Khazars, once a great empire, and of which modern Kazakhstan is a remnant. In the first millennium [AD] many of the Edomites and other Canaanites who had adopted Judaism migrated to Khazaria, and the Khazars, beginning with their king, had converted to Judaism. The jews being absorbed into the general population, these people adopted the name Ashkenaz, or “Ashkenazi jews”, for Ashkenaz was recognized [by these jews] as an ancestor of the original Caucasian population of the area.
[Now if we separate the claims of the medieval jews whom Koestler quoted from the Biblical account and the archaeological records, there is much less that can be used to identify these people with certainty. It is not clear from any original records that Koestler, Heinrich Graetz, who wrote these things over a hundred years before him, or any of the other older jews that they quote are fully correct. The Aryan people of the Steppe whom the Edomite jews mingled with in Khazaria certainly had a Mesopotamian origin, but originally could have been from one or more of the Japhethite or Shemite tribes.]
Magog, Tubal and Meshech (Genesis 10:2). Over 1500 years before the Germanic Rus conquered the land which bears their name today, Ezekiel wrote of Rhos (LXX) or Rosh (MT) being the leader (“prince”) of Gog, Meshech and Tubal (Ezekiel chapter 38). This is by no means a coincidence, but rather a clear manifestation of the Divine inspiration of the prophet.
In light of the relationship which the Rus were to have with Magog, Meshech and Tubal, which Ezekiel chapter 38 illustrates, Herodotus mentions two tribes among those under Persian dominion, the Moschi and the Tibareni (3.94, 7.78), in a convenient geographic location that without stretching the imagination we may associate these ancient Japhethites with the dwellers around the Russian cities of Moscow and Tobolsk. Strabo discussed the Moschi and the Tibareni in his eleventh book, and relates that land formerly held by the Moschi, whom he placed just south of Colchis in the Caucasus mountains, was encroached upon by the Colchians, Armenians and Iberians (11.2.18). Of course the Iberians are Hebrews, a part of the Scythians who stayed put, rather than moving northward through the Caucasus [or westward through Anatolia] with their fellows, and Armenia can be shown to be a Hebrew word meaning “mountain parts”.
Whoever Magog may have been in prehistoric times, we can be certain that his descendants are found among those gigantic (“Gog”) mixed masses of Caucasian – Mongol – Chinese – whatever blood who are found inhabiting much of Asiatic Russia today [which the ancient Khazars also were a part of]. Mongolia and Tibet, homes of anciently mixed races with a clear Adamic cultural influence may be guessed. Professor L. A. Waddell, who wrote in the first quarter of the 20th century, produced several books which illustrated the Aryan origin of cultures in India and in Tibet.
[The contemporary Russian archaeologist S.A. Grigoryev in papers such as The Sintashta Culture and Some Questions of Indo-Europeans Origins and other works has demonstrated that the archaeological remains of the steppe did not come from the people generally known as the Scythians, but from forerunners to the Scythians. He states ”Scythian migration through Iran, Near East and the Caucasus took place at the beginning of the Iron Age.”. He also shows that the earlier Sintashta people also originally came from the regions of Syria and Anatolia. Therefore the archaeological record shows that people had been migrating from out of the Biblical world and into the steppe, and this is fairly consistent with the Biblical narrative and what we may be able to glean from early historical records.]
Madai (Genesis 10:2) is identifiable with the Medes, which is evident simply by checking both terms in Strong’s Concordance. The Greeks wrote “Mede” as Μῆδος, the ‘η’ in English being [rendered by] either an ‘a’, or an ‘ê’ or ‘e’. Herodotus wrote that “These Medes were anciently called by all people Arians” (7.62), although it is more likely that the term “Aryan” was rather used by Israelites who once sojourned in Media (with which Dr. George Moore agrees in his The Lost Tribes and the Saxons of the East and the Saxons of the West…), since the term Ar-ya appears to mean “Mountain of Yahweh” in Hebrew (something which the Israelites were often called, i.e. Daniel 2:45), and that the Greeks had Israelite tribes in Media confused with actual Medes. [There is an assumption that the word Aryan comes from a Sanskrit word for noble, however I would assert that the Sanskrit followed much later.] Regardless, the Medes fulfilling a destiny in history which the prophets had already assigned to Madai (i.e. Isaiah chapter 21; Jeremiah 25:25 and 51:11 and 28; Daniel chapter 8), there should be no doubt of this identification.
There are good indications that the Medes are found in the Slavs of today. The Slavs may be traced to a people that the Romans and Greeks called Sauromatae (Sarmatians). Diodorus Siculus, discussing certain Sakae (Scythian) Kings, states that “It was by these kings that many of the conquered [by the Scythians] peoples were removed to other homes, and two of these became very great colonies: the one was composed of Assyrians and was removed to the land between Paphlagonia and Pontus [modern day Turkey along the southern shore of the Black Sea], and the other was drawn from Media and planted along the Tanaïs [a river north of the Caucasus mountains which empties into the Black Sea from the northeast], its people receiving the name Sauromatae. Many years later this people became powerful and ravaged a large part of Scythia...” (Diodorus Siculus 2.43.5-7). And with this, there being so many Slavs among the Germanic peoples today, we have the realization of the fulfillment of Genesis 9:27, which will be discussed below.
Javan (Genesis 10:2) is also identified by Strong in his Concordance with the Ionian Greeks, as the Septuagint translators also seemed to do, rendering the Hebrew word (3120) as Ἰωύαν (Iōuan). This is not out of fancy, for on the Behistun Rock (and other Eastern inscriptions) these Greeks are called “Yavana”, and Sir Henry Rawlinson wrote “Ionians” there in his famous translation of that inscription. Other Persian inscriptions assure this same connection (see G. Moore’s The Lost Tribes… and E. R. Capt’s Missing Links…). These Ionians once inhabited the coasts of Anatolia [modern Turkey] and many of its islands, that land called Ionia generally, and also were the founders and principal inhabitants of Athens.
The sons of Javan (Genesis 10:4). Of the sons of Javan, all are identified with the sea trade with Tyre in Ezekiel chapter 27: Elishah at 27:7, Tarshish at 27:12, Kittim (or Chittim) at 27:6 in the Septuagint. Dodanim here in Genesis is a mistake by the Hebrew copyists for Rodanim (as Strong’s attests), and at Ezekiel 27:15 (where the A.V. has “Dedan”), we read “Rhodians” (Ῥόδιοι) in the LXX. Elishah and Kittim are both identified with Cyprus, with several varying spellings of these names found in ancient inscriptions. Kittim is the word for Cyprus throughout the Hebrew prophets. Rodanim are the Greeks of Rhodes, as identified in the LXX. Tarshish is a region of southern Spain known as Tartessus. The Ionians (or Javan) are connected with Tyrian sea trade also at Ezekiel 27:13 and 19, mentioned with Dan: for a portion of that tribe also settled Greece at an early time, and were known as Danaans. [We see in the King James Version of Ezekiel 27:19 “Dan also and Javan going to and fro occupied in thy fairs: bright iron, cassia, and calamus, were in thy market.” This is a clear reference to Danaan Greeks and Ionian Greeks. Newer Bible translations write Vedan - a word which exists nowhere else - for the Hebrew construction which actually means “and Dan”. They do this in order to further obfuscate history and protect their errant identification of ancient Israelites with jews.]
The “ships of Tarshish” are mentioned in Kings, Chronicles, Psalms, and several of the prophets. Although a separate and quite lengthy topic, it can be convincingly demonstrated that the Phoenicians of Tyre and elsewhere were the Israelites – called Phoenicians by the Greeks – right from the pages of the Bible, with much evidence also added by secular historians. Carthage was a Phoenician colony of Tyre, and the Carthaginians eventually controlled the land we call Spain today, then called Iberia, “Hebrew” or “Eber” land, just as the land south of the Caucasus mountains, where the deported Israelites first settled and became known as Scythians, was also called Iberia, even in Roman times.
Diodorus Siculus (25.10.1 ff.) discusses wars between the Carthaginian Hamilcar Barca and the “Iberians and Tartessians” in the third century B.C. Herodotus (4.152) is writing about a period much earlier than his own, even pre-dating the Trojan War, and speaking of Tartessus in southern Spain says, “This trading town was in those days a virgin port, unfrequented by the merchants”. The Trojan War was 200 years before King Solomon’s ships, so Herodotus surely seems to have been accurate, and his calling Tartessus a “trading town” illuminates the Scriptural record. In their Greek-English lexicon, Liddell & Scott readily identify Τάρτησσος as “the Tarshish of Scripture”.
Tiras (Genesis 10:2) is in Strong’s Hebrew spelling “Thiyrac”. Mentioned nowhere else in the Bible (except in the copy of Genesis chapter 10 found at I Chronicles chapter 1), many writers have made perfect etymological and ethnographical sense in connecting these people to the Thracians north of Greece. In later history the land of Thrace is instead occupied by Greeks, as Makedonians and Thessalians, and Strabo is confused as to whether one tribe in the area, the Treres, are Kimmerian (Kelts) or Thracian (13.1.8, 14.1.40). The Thracians were not considered Greeks but rather barbarians (Strabo 7.7.1), and had colonies in Asia (Strabo 12.3-4), and also with the Eneti settled the area around Venice (Strabo 12.3.25). The Phrygians of Anatolia are said to be Thracians (Strabo 7.3.2, 7.25, and 10.3.16). [It may be that the Phrygians, or Thracians, were the first mound or tumuli builders of early Europe.]
Modern anthropologists, archaeologists and historians often discuss the “sea peoples”, whom they usually claim were Caucasians who came from the Aegean area and invaded the Mediterranean. The true origin of the “sea peoples” are as the Japhethites of Genesis chapter 10, who were spread along the waterways from the Caspian and Black Seas to as far west as Spain, and at a very early time. Contrast Genesis 10:5 with 10:20 and 10:31, where the Japhethites were specifically assigned the “isles” or “coast-lands”, but not the Hamites or Shemites, though the Hamitic Philistines also plied the waves, and only after a considerable time were these peoples rivaled at sea by the Israelite Phoenicians.
There is a certain prophecy, at Genesis 9:27, which reads, “God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant”. Without discussing the part concerning Canaan, this will be discussed briefly here. It is evident that Yahweh surely did enlarge Japheth, for these tribes were spread out over a great area along the southern coasts and eastern borderlands of Europe. Although a separate and lengthy topic, once it is realized that not only the Phoenicians of Tyre, Sidon, Byblos (et al.), northern Africa, the Greek and Italian islands, Spain and Britain, but also the Keltic and Germanic peoples, and the Trojans and Illyrians and Parthians, among others, were all descendants of the Shemitic Israelites, and most of whom had moved into Europe, along with other Shemites such as the Lydians (see Lud below), only then may the oracle at Genesis 9:27 (and most other prophecies in the Bible) be manifest and appreciated.
Aside from the peoples of Meshech and Tubal having been conquered by, and living among the Germanic Rus (and we see here that the Slavic tongue prevailed in Russia), and the colony of Medes moved by the Israelite Scythians to the Tanaïs, which later became known as Sarmatians, and later than that also known as Slavs, these things already discussed above, the other Japhethite tribes moved all along the Mediterranean coasts and into Europe, but were not known as Slavs.
The Getae and the Daci are described by Strabo as being akin to the Thracians (Tiras) and having the same tongue (7.3.10, 13), these inhabiting a great part of both sides of the lower Danube. Although Strabo considered everything north of the Danube as Germany (2.5.30, 7.1.1 et al.) this particular area is historically Slavic. The Greek Ionians also made many settlements. The Ionians of Phocaea in Asia Minor were called by Herodotus “the first of the Greeks who performed long voyages” (1.163), and these alone founded Massalia (Marseilles) on the coast of France, Maenaca in Iberia, Elea in Italy (Strabo 4.1.4, 3.4.2, and 6.1.1) and many other colonies. The Etrurians, or Etruscans, of Italy descended from the Shemitic tribe of Lud found first in Anatolia – the ancient Lydians, which shall be discussed below. Italy was also settled by the Trojans, and especially Rome (Strabo 6.1.12 and 14), the Ionians of Asia Minor (Strabo 6.1.14, 6.2.2), the Athenians who were also Ionians, and the Achaeans who were Danaans (Strabo 6.1.10, 11, 13, and 15).
With so many Slavs, along with the races of Southern France and Italy, among us today, Japheth certainly is dwelling in the tents of Shem unto this day. Yet we must understand this: that the earliest Adamic tribes had most likely entered Europe by 3000 BC, yet the earliest substantial writing we have from our European forebears is not until circa 600 BC.
The Hamites: Genesis 10:6-20
Cush (Genesis 10:6). Before beginning a discussion of Cush (or Kush), it is quite important to acquire an understanding of the word “Ethiopian”, as the Greeks called the Cushites, as the word Kush is often translated in our Bibles, and as we call the people found inhabiting the land of Kush in Africa today. Our “Ethiopian” comes from the Greek word Αἰθίοψ which properly means “shining face”, “glowing face” or “sunburnt face”, and was certainly not used by the earliest Greek writers to describe the naturally dark races. There are several words used to describe “black”, “swart”, “dark” etc. in Greek which are often applied to people, among them being μέλας, κελαινός, πελός and φαιός. Other words meaning “dark” but apparently not applied to people are σκότος, κνέφας, γνόφος, δνόφος, ζόφος and ζόφερος.
A word akin to Αἰθίοψ is αἰθός, which the large 9th edition of Liddell & Scott defines as “burnt...II. shining...red-brown...”. The 1996 Revised Supplement to this edition inserts after burnt “perhaps black- or dark-complexioned”, and emends shining to bronze-coloured. The black I must reject. Red-brown describes a sun-tanned Caucasian, and not a dark-skinned negro who only gets blacker in the sun. It seems that the definition of these words have indeed, over time, been politically corrected.
Other words related to Αἰθίοψ are: αἴθων “fiery, burning…of metal, flashing, glittering...”; αἴθω “to light up, kindle...”; αἴθρη “clear sky, fair weather”; αἶθοψ, the closest, “fiery-looking, of metal, flashing; of wine, sparkling” but according to Liddell & Scott (the source for these definitions), someone in the Greek Anthologies, a late and wide collection of Greek inscriptions and miscellaneous writings mostly from well into the first millennium A.D., either translated or used αἶθοψ as “swart, dark” however this is clearly contrary to the true spirit of the word’s meaning. Applied to Kush, a White man, or his White descendants, it could only mean “sun-burnt” as in bright red or brassy-colored, which is something which happens only to Caucasians in the outdoors, and is exactly what one may expect Kushites in Ethiopia to look like!
Moses fled Egypt, as recorded in Exodus chapter 2, and met with a tribe of the Midianites, descendants of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25:1-2) from whom he took a wife. These Midianites lived in the land of Kush, as can be discerned from Numbers chapter 12. Abraham had originally sent his sons by Keturah “eastward, unto the east country” (Genesis 25:6) and surely this “east country” is that land which is called Kush (Ethiopia in the A.V.) at Genesis 2:13. [Wherever we see Ethiopia in the Bible, the Hebrew word is Kush.] Nimrod, the Kushite, founded the first Adamic empire (Genesis 10:8-12) which evidently spread far and wide, beyond Mesopotamia to where we have the Hindu-Kush mountains of today. The river of Genesis 2:13 “that compasseth the whole land of Cush” in Moses' time may even be the Indus, if not some other lost river, for it is evident that the events which caused the Deluge of Noah may have changed the geography of the area. Moses certainly did not go to Ethiopia in Africa for his wife, and there are no Midianites ever spoken of as being there.
In Hesiod’s Theogony, probably written in the 7th century B.C. [I had dated it to the 8th century BC in the original version of this paper], Memnon, legendary King of the Ethiopians, was the son of Eos, or “Light”. In the Aethiopis by Arctinus of Miletus, written as a sequel to Homer’s Iliad, Memnon the Ethiopian aided the Trojans in their war against the Greeks, only to be slain by Achilles. Herodotus mentions the “Ethiopians of Asia” (3.94), and although he also describes black and wooly-haired so-called “Ethiopians” (3.101, 7.70), I will refer to Diodorus Siculus for a more complete picture below. Herodotus calls Susa, the famed capital city (along with Persepolis and also the Median city Ecbatana) of the Persian Empire the “city of Memnon” (5.53-54), since the Greeks believed that Memnon had founded that city (Strabo 15.3.2). There being abundant proof that the Persians of the Greek histories were White, it cannot be imagined that they thought Memnon to be black. Herodotus was writing at an already late time in Ethiopian history, when the ancient nation below Egypt, and Egypt itself, had already been overrun with Nubians.
Diodorus Siculus, relating the tradition concerning Memnon, has Ethiopia in Asia sending aid to the Trojans, including Assyrians and “men of Susiana” (2.22.1-5, 4.75.4), although Diodorus also records the claims of the Ethiopians of Africa, that that place was the home of Memnon. Among others, Apollodorus records the myth that Perseus, legendary founder of the Persians, married Andromeda, daughter of the Ethiopian King Cepheus and his wife Cassiepea, after rescuing her from a sea monster, an event said to have taken place at Joppa in Palaestine, which Josephus the Judaean historian also discusses (Apollodorus 2.4.3, Josephus, Wars, 3.9.3 (3:420)). So the Greeks have many witnesses of an “Ethiopia” in Asia, in lands and cities known to be inhabited by Whites, and with people taking part in some of the first events recorded by the White poets of Europe, and the Hebrews have a Kush in a land which may surely be supposed to be the same as the Greek, yet the Hebrew record is not much earlier than the events the later Greeks were recording (i.e. Exodus and death of Moses, c. 1450 B.C.; Trojan War, c. 1185 B.C.), and as a third witness, we have a Kush (the Hindu-Kush mountains) on our modern maps not much further east than where the Greek and Hebrew records tell us that the ancient district was situated.
In his book The Lost Tribes…, Dr. Moore presents the viable theory that names similar to Kush and found in southern Russia are derivative peoples of this Biblical patriarch: Kosa, Khoza, Khazars and Cossacks.
Now to turn to the Kush, or Ethiopia, of Africa. In the first eleven chapters of his third book, Diodorus Siculus draws from much earlier historians (as he always did for whomever he wrote about) to describe the various peoples of African Ethiopia, and it is evident that those tribes contrast with one another quite starkly. The first Ethiopians he discusses are endowed with what we may consider a well-developed form of “western civilization”, for he states “they say that they were the first to be taught to honor the gods and to hold sacrifices and processions and festivals”, they quote Homer in reference to themselves (Iliad 1:423-424), they recount the unsuccessful invasions into their country by Cambyses and Semiramis, and they claim that the Egyptians were originally Ethiopian colonists, led by Osiris. The two types of their writing (like Egypt), popular or demotic and sacred or hieroglyphic, are described, and it is said that the sacred is common among these Ethiopians. Their priests were much like the Egyptian. They believed that their kings gained sovereignty by Divine Providence, their laws and punishments were from custom, and they practiced the same flight of refuge which the Greeks did, which was similar to the Hebrew Levitical cities of refuge. An Ethiopian king under Ptolemy was educated in Greece and studied Philosophy, and aside from a few odd customs, there is no reason to believe that these Ethiopians, whose physical characteristics were not mentioned, were anything but civilized, and not much different than the rest of “western” society.
In stark contrast to those cultured Ethiopians which Diodorus first discussed, beginning at 3.8.1 he says: “But there are also a great many other tribes of the Ethiopians [and here it is apparent that, like “Phoenicia” and other labels, “Ethiopia” has become merely a geographical designation, rather than an ethnographical one], some of them dwelling in the land lying on both banks of the Nile and on the islands in the river, others inhabiting the neighboring country of Arabia [between the Nile and the Red Sea], and others residing in the interior of Libya [the rest of Africa - Sudan here]. The majority of them, and especially those who dwell along the river, “are black in color and have flat noses and wooly hair.” Here it is evident that Diodorus is describing the Nubians and other wandering black tribes of the region. He continues: “As for their spirit they are entirely savage and display the nature of a wild beast...and are as far removed as possible from human kindness to one another...and cultivating none of the practices of civilized life...they present a striking contrast when considered in the light of our own customs.”
So surely it is apparent here, that if we do not have a White culture in Ethiopia in an era not long before Diodorus’ own, we certainly have at least the remnants of one. Ezekiel chapter 30 lists Ethiopia among “all the mingled people”, and all of this fits very well with the picture of a once Caucasian but now adulterated Kush in that region.
Of the sons of Cush (Genesis 10:7), Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, Sabtechah, and the sons of Raamah, Sheba and Dedan, not much will be said here. Some of these names appear again among the sons of Joktan listed at Genesis 10:26-30, in both the MT and the LXX, and this has caused confusion and speculation in attempts to identify these tribes, and even later in the Bible confusion seems to exist (compare I Chr. 1:9 and 32). Strabo wrote of Berenicê, “a Sabaean city”, together with Sabae “a good sized city”, which were on the African side of the Red Sea (16.4.10). It can only be imagined, that these peoples eventually mixing with aliens, have given us the many negroid and arab tribes of the region that we see in later history.
Never has more confusion existed concerning race than that concerning the ancient Egyptians. This is due mostly to jewish encouragement of negro so-called scholars which began in the first half of the 20th century, with the promotion of negroes such as Marcus Garvey in the jewish press. In the 1970's the belief that the cultures of northern Africa belonged to negroes began to be promoted in academic circles. Yet over 200 years of European archaeology and anthropology insisted that ancient Egypt was White, and the only question was: How White? Surely Mitsrayim, or Mizraim (Genesis 10:6) is the Old Testament Hebrew for Egypt everywhere. Egypt, or Aegyptus, is the term used throughout Greek literature, and the land known as Egypt at that time was only the area around the Nile delta, and the Nile valley along both banks of the river as far south as Elephantine. The early Greeks seem to have written little about Egypt outside of Thebes and Heliopolis, until the time of Herodotus. There is much to be said about early Egypt that is beyond the scope of this discussion, but warrants at least a mention. First, early Egypt actually consisted of several disparate cultures, some of them alien in nature, which were adverse to one another and were eventually amalgamated by force, and that was certainly not a good idea. The earliest higher culture of Egypt was linked by archaeologists and anthropologists to the Levant, but it may not be said that it was Adamic. The pharaonic civilization in Egypt appeared later and rather suddenly, not long after 3000 B.C., which is consistent with Septuagint chronology. This is where the Egypt of Mizraim begins. The archaeology of those early dynasties clearly reveals a people of high civilization and Aryan characteristics. Statues of the pharaohs often reveal men who would not be out of place in Dublin or Hamburg. However once Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, and all of the disparate tribes brought under one government, Egyptian hymns include ideas of universalism, ecumenism, and even express the idea of separatism of races by color (see Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, pp. 365-367). There is nothing new under the sun.
There seems to have actually been two groups in early Egypt, centuries apart, remembered as “Hyksos”. The first group little is known about, perhaps a noble Adamic race, probably Shemites and maybe even Hebrews, who most likely built the Great Pyramid. The second were Kenites who invaded and occupied the Delta shortly before Joseph was sold into Egypt. During the time of Joseph, the Pharaohs at Thebes were of the House of Shem, as was the priesthood of On (Heliopolis or Beth-Shemesh). It was these Egyptians at Thebes whom Joseph was sold to as a slave. “Beth-Shemesh” is a double-entendre: it can mean either “House of the Sun” or “House of the people of Shem” in palaeo-Hebrew. Later, Joseph, as vice-regent of Egypt and with the help of the seven-years famine, drove the Kenites out of the delta for good.
What follows are two views of race in ancient Egypt, from Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, James B. Pritchard, editor, Princeton University Press, 1969:
From ANET, p. 441, from The Admonitions of Ipu-Wer, the original dated to approximately 2300-2050 BC:
“A man regards his son as his enemy.…A man of character goes in mourning because of what has happened in the land....Foreigners have become people everywhere....”
A footnote says: “The term “men, humans, people,” was used by Egyptians to designate themselves, in contrast to their foreign neighbors, who were not conceded to be real people.”
From ANET, p. 366, from A Hymn to Amon-Re, the original dated to the Egyptian empire of approximately 1775-1575 BC:
“Atum, who made the people, Distinguished their nature, made their life, And separated colors, one from another...”
An introductory note on p. 365 says: “Egypt's world position under her Empire produced strong tendencies toward centralization and unification of Egyptian religion, with universalism and with syncretism of the gods...”
In less than 500 years, ancient Egyptians went from not even recognizing aliens as people, to being one big universalist ecumenical happy family. Rome, and now America and Europe, have followed the same path to hell.
Of the Sons of Mizraim (Genesis 10:13): Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, Philistim, and Caphtorim, these are tribal and not individuals’ names. The Anamim are likely the “Anami” mentioned in an 8th century B.C. cuneiform inscription. Naphtuhim is apparently an Egyptian word which means “people of the delta”, and Pathrusim means “people of the southern land”.
The Philistim, or Philistines, had dwelt in the land of Caphtor before their own migration to Palestine, and Caphtor was very probably in Egypt. See Amos 9:7; Deuteronomy 2:23; and Jeremiah 47:4. Certainly the Philistines were Adamic (Zechariah 9:6) and some had surely migrated west with the children of Israel (Isaiah 11:14). Goliath was not actually a Philistine, but rather he was a mercenary in their army, one of the sons of Repha the Canaanite giant, for which see I Chronicles 20:4-6 where the phrase “the giant” is in Hebrew ha-raphah, the source of the Rephaim (i.e. Genesis 14:5 and 15:20; II Samuel 5:18 and 22 and 23:13 et al.). There also should be noted an obscure entry in Herodotus, at 2.128: “Hence they [the Egyptians] commonly call the pyramids after Philition, a shepherd who at that time fed his flocks about the place.” Some suppose that this may be a memory of the ancient Philistines in Egypt, and the first “shepherd kings”, connected to the building of the Great Pyramid.
The Ludim are confused by the translators for the Lydians, the Shemitic Lud of Anatolia, and “Lydian(s)” at Jeremiah 46:9 and Ezekiel 30:5 should be “Ludim” instead, since these are descendants of Ham, and not Shem. The Ludim of Ham are also mentioned at Ezekiel 27:10 in connection with the trade of ancient Tyre.
Phut (Genesis 10:6) was associated with Libya, though it is difficult to discern exactly why (see Nahum 3:9), and in the A.V. and the Septuagint it was translated as such at Ezekiel 30:5 and 38:5, and Jeremiah 46:9 (26:9 in the LXX). The Lubim (and so the name “Libya”) and Sukkiim (II Chronicles 12:3) may have been pre-Adamic (aboriginal) people, since they are not mentioned in Genesis 10, or they may have been Adamites who simply came to be called by a different name, especially since Sukkiim may simply mean “tent-dweller”. Phut is listed among “all the mingled people” at Ezekiel 30:5.
Diodorus Siculus (20.55) writes of Libyans (not necessarily Lubim, since the word became a geographical term to the Greeks) dwelling on Africa’s northern coast, in cities, and friendly to Carthage, but then also of the nomadic “Libyans” of the interior, hostile to Carthage. He does not, however, describe Libyan or Carthaginian physically. For perspective, Virgil, a Latin poet contemporary with Diodorus, called Dido the legendary queen of Carthage, who is mentioned by Josephus and who was a historical figure, both blonde and beautiful in his famous poem, The Aeneid. Now of course Virgil never met Dido, who lived 800 years before the poet’s time, but this does indicate Virgil’s idea of what the ideal Phoenician woman may look like.
Hesiod, probably a contemporary of Isaiah, writing in his Catalogues of Women (fragment 40A) mentions both the “boundless black-skins and the Libyans” but says that from Epaphus, a son of Chronos, “sprang the dark Libyans and high-souled Ethiopians”, but also the “under-ground folk and feeble pygmies”. It is also apparent that by this time Libya also was little more than a geographical label and signified all of Africa except Egypt and Ethiopia. Surely the more reliable early source may be the poet Aeschylus, a contemporary of Nehemiah, who in his Suppliant Maidens at lines 277-290, lists a group of races and compares the likeness of their women to those of the Greek Danaans. Among those mentioned are Libyans, Egyptians and Amazons, very likely indicating a large degree of homogeneity among these peoples. Aeschylus was relating a parody of events which transpired a thousand years before his own time, the migration of Dan from Egypt to Greece.
In this age we have long had a mixed race, the Berbers, as evidence of a former White civilization in this region, although the settlements of the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, the later Germanic invasion of Carthage, and then the rise of Mohammedanism and the subsequent arab conquest of northern Africa, all did much to further confound an already mingled African world.
Canaan (Genesis10:6), Ham’s youngest son, was cursed by Noah (Genesis 9:25-27). The reason why Canaan, and not Ham himself or his other sons, was cursed should be apparent by reading Leviticus 20:11; for Canaan was the result of Ham’s illicit behavior, warranting his special mention at Genesis 9:18. And so Canaan’s descendants are later found mixed in with the race of Cain (Genesis 4:16-26 and 15:19-21; Deuteronomy 7:1-2) who was also cursed (Genesis 4:10-15) and several races with no Biblical genealogy, indicating that they are of non-Adamic origin. Some of the “-ites” here in Genesis 10:16-18 also may well be of non-Adamic stock, races that the Canaanites mixed with rather than races which sprung from Canaan.
The “Hivites” seem to be rather the “Horites”, the word “Hivite” being a scribal error in all of its occurrences, evident by comparing Genesis 36:2, 20, and 30, and also the Septuagint at Genesis 34:2 and Josh. 9:7. The Horites, Hurrians to modern anthropologists and archaeologists, are often considered to be an oriental race which invaded Mesopotamia at a very early time. Some Horites dwelt at Mount Hor, to which the Edomites, the descendants of Esau who was also cursed (Malachi 1:2-3), had joined themselves. Mount Hor was later called Mount Seir, and is today known as Petra, in southern Jordan. See Genesis chapter 36.
Heth was a progenitor of the people later known as the Hittites, which was possibly a pre-Adamic tribe whom Heth had settled with, and therefore named for him by the rest of the Adamic race. The name Sidon is found in the city in Canaan of the same name, and its environs. Seven hundred years before the Greeks first wrote of “Phoenicians”, the Canaanites of Tyre and Sidon and the rest of the coast were driven out by the children of Israel, who then inhabited those cities. The “Phoenicians” were indeed Israel.
These descendants of Canaan may be traced through both the Bible and through history to the people that are called “jews” today, although many are also among the “arabs”, and the olive-skinned peoples of the Mediterranean and the Near East. See: Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:51; John 8:33-47; Rom. 9:1-13; Revelation 2:9; and 3:9; Josephus’ Antiquities 13.9.1 (13:254-258); 13.15.8 (13:395-397); 15.7.9-10 (15:253-266); and Wars 2.8.2 (2:119-121); 2.20.4 (2:566-568); and 4.4.4 (4:270-273) for a beginning of the study required to understand this circumstance.
In closing this discussion of the descendants of Ham, it may be said that with Nimrod we certainly have mention of both the first Adamic tyrant, a man who would rule over his kin outside of the laws of Yahweh, and also the first multicultural “empire”, since the cities mentioned at Genesis 10:10 had long existed and may have been already populated with peoples of other races. There is much evidence that the beginnings of “western” civilization appeared rather suddenly here in Mesopotamia, by which the Genesis chapter 11 account has much creditability, once it is realized that this represents the beginnings of the White race, and certainly not all races.
The Shemites (Genesis 10:21-31)
That the Persians sprung from Elam (Genesis 10:22) should be evident by the prophets alone, for everywhere that we find Elam in the Bible, we find the Persians fulfilling their role in history, for example in Isaiah chapters 13 and 21, and we also find consistent mention of Elam along with Madai, or the Medes, at Jeremiah 25:25; Daniel 5:28 and 6:8-15, and even at Acts 2:9. In his 16th book Strabo discusses the geography of the Parthian Empire, of which Persia was at that time a part. Susiana was the district along the Tigris, adjacent to the Persian Gulf and opposite Babylon. Persis bordered Susiana to the east, and also held most of the eastern shore of the Gulf. Elymais (Ἐλυμαΐς) is north of Susiana, and Media north of Elymais. It is not hard to see the name Elam in Elymais, which the Assyrians in their records called Elamtu. Along with Madai (Genesis 10:4), Elam formed the Medo-Persian empire of historic times, the two arms of the image of the beast of Daniel chapter 2.
Asshur (Genesis 10:22), from whom sprung the nation of the Assyrians, often called Asshur by the prophets, had a long and tumultuous history before their own rise to empire and first invasions of Israel c. 745 B.C. For many centuries they were overshadowed by (or under the yoke of) the Hittites, the Horite (Hurrian) Mitanni Kingdom, or the Sumerians or Babylonians. It is evident from many of their own inscriptions that the Assyrians absorbed much Hittite blood: for the “jewish” hooked nose is common in their portraits, yet there must have been many true Assyrians living at the time of the prophet Jonah, who urged them to repent, both “man (Strong’s #120, adam) and beast” (Jon. 3:8).
That Lud (Genesis 10:22) is Lydia in western Anatolia (modern Turkey) is supported by Isaiah 66:19, which is the only other mention of the Shemitic Lud in the Bible. All other mentions of Lud, or by error of the translators “Lydian(s)”, in the Old Testament are actually the Ludim, sons of Mizraim in Egypt. Most of the translators and commentators confuse these two different tribes named Lud. Isaiah 66:19 was surely fulfilled concerning Lud when the Kimmerians (Kelts), descendants of the Israelites whom the Assyrians deported, invaded Anatolia, destroying much of Phrygia and invading Lydia and Ionia before crossing over into Thrace in Europe at the end of the 7th century B.C. (see, for instance, Archaeology, A.I.A., January-February 2002, p. 44). Three centuries later, at the beginning of the 3rd century B.C., Keltic tribes returned to Anatolia, invaded Greece, and settled in the province later known as Galatia, visited by Paul of Tarsus. These are the Galatians to whom he wrote the epistle of that name. Sharon Turner, in his History of the Anglo-Saxons, p. 40, discusses this Keltic activity in Lydia and the rest of Asia Minor at this early time.
The Etruscans, also called Tyrrhenians and Etrurians, who for several centuries held Itrurea in Italy and parts of the coasts and islands in the western Mediterranean, are discussed at length by Diodorus Siculus (primarily at 5.40 ff.) although he states nothing concerning their origins. However Herodotus (1.94), Strabo (5.2.2) and Tacitus (Annals of Rome, 4.52 ff.) all state that the Etruscans were originally Lydians. Archaeologists doubt the Etruscan-Lydian connection simply because no Etruscan inscriptions have been found in Anatolia. Such inscriptions have, however, been found on islands off the coast of Anatolia.
Everywhere in the Old Testament that the words Syria or Syrian appear, Aram (Genesis 10:22) is the Hebrew word from which they are derived. It is apparent that the Greek words Συρία (Syria) and Τύρος (Tyre) have, at various times, both been derived from the same Hebrew word, Tsor (Strong’s #s 6864 and 6865), the ancient name for Tyre. There does seem to be confusion concerning the name “Syria” in ancient times, or possibly the Greeks purposely used the term to describe a wider area than just the land of Aram. Herodotus counts Palestine as part of Syria (7.89 i), and calls the Judahites who fought against Necho at Megiddo “Syrians” (2.159, II Chronicles 35:20). He also calls “Syrians” certain Cappadocians “who dwell about the rivers Thermôdon and Parthenius” (2.104). Strabo explains that the Cappadocians “have to the present time been called ‘White Syrians’, as though some Syrians were black” (16.1.2), and so we may deduce that all the Syrians known to Strabo were White so far as he was concerned. Many writers, including Strabo, mistook the Assyrians for Syrians (16.1.3), certainly due to the similarity of the names in Greek. Originally Aram was centered in Damascus. The Greeks spoke of a Syrian named Cinyras (Iliad, 11.20) who conquered Cyprus and had Paphos for a capital, yet most commentators (i.e. Rawlinson’s notes in his Herodotus at 2.182 and 7.195) have Paphos as an early Phoenician colony. Josephus, in his Antiquities at 9.14.2 (9:283-287) has Cyprus (the “Citteans”) as subjects of Tyre just prior to the Assyrian invasions of Israel. Ezekiel 27:6 has the Israelite tribe of Asher in Cyprus, and Tyre was in Asher’s territory. The language of Aram, Aramaic, became the dominant language of trade in the Near East until it was supplanted by Greek after the time of Alexander. For the Persian empire, Aramaic, and not Farsi, was the lingua franca. Jacob took wives of “Laban the Syrian”, although Laban was a Hebrew by race, a descendant of one of Abraham’s brothers.
Arphaxad (Genesis 10:22), the ancestor of the Hebrews, has no land surviving into the historic period which I have been able to identify, not wanting to rule out surviving inscriptions which I have not yet seen. Abraham, though sojourning in Chaldaea when he appears in the Genesis record, obviously had Haran in far northern Syria for a homeland, a town which shared its name with both a brother and a grandfather of Abraham. This land was also once called Paddan-Aram, but may have been the original land of Arphaxad. Not long after Abraham left Haran, the area was overrun by the Amorites, and then by Hurrians and Hittites, and was a later part of the Hurrian Mitanni Kingdom.
The name Eber (Genesis 10:24) comes from a word meaning “across” or “the opposite side” (Strong’s #s 5676 and 5677). The usage is similar to the Greek words πέραν and πέρατος. The phrase τὰ πέρατα τ͡ης οἰκουμένης, or “the opposite ends of the inhabited world” was used by Paul at Rom. 10:18. Similarly, Tacitus used the phrase “ends of the earth” in the Agricola, chapters 12, 24, and 33 to describe the location of Ireland and Britain. Homer used a similar phrase in the Odyssey to describe the other end of the Mediterranean, that part about Spain. It is at the “other side” of the “inhabited world” that we find so many ancient names like that of Eber, the first Hebrew: Iberia (Spain), the Ebro River (in Spain), Hibernia (Ireland), and the Hebrides (islands off the coast of Scotland). Much later, some of the lands occupied by the deported Israelites, the Scythians, held similar names, such as Iberia south of the Caucasus Mountains, and the Hebrus River in Illyria (Diodorus Siculus, 19.67.6). None of this is coincidental.
The sons of Eber were Peleg and Joktan (Genesis 10:25). Some writers, such as Perry Edward Powell (Father Abraham’s Children) associate the Pelasgian Greeks with Peleg. At first I denied the association, since “Pelasgian” seems to be a compound of the Greek words πέλας (“near”) and γ͡ης or γ͡η (“land”) and so, as they were to the Ionians, “neighbors”, just as the Spartans simply called the Greeks about Sparta περίοικοι or “neighbors”. Yet Strabo says “...the Pelasgi were by the Attic people called ‘Pelargi’ [which means “Storks”], the compilers add, because they were wanderers and, like birds, resorted to those places wither chance led them” (5.2.4). Elsewhere Strabo cites Greek writers who claimed that the Pelasgians came from Thessaly (9.5.22), and there a people whom Strabo calls Pelagonians are found (9.5.11), so there may be some merit to Powell’s assertion. The Pelasgians are said to have “spread throughout the whole of Greece” in ancient times (Strabo 5.2.4), and when the Danaans came from Egypt, they were also called by that name (Strabo 8.6.9). The apparently peaceful reception of the Danaans in Greece may well be explained, if those inhabitants of Greece before the arrival of Dan were also Hebrews.
Joktan (Genesis 10:25) means, “he will be made little” (Strong’s #3355), and so his name is a prophecy by itself, and his race was surely absorbed by indigenous populations called “arabs” by us (and by themselves) today. While several of Joktan’s descendants’ names may be identified, some tentatively, with places in Arabia, two stand out and merit discussion here.
Sheba (Genesis 10:28) was a mountainous area of what is now Yemen. See (“Excavating the Land of Sheba”, Archaeology Odyssey, November-December 2001, p. 44). The Queen of Sheba (I Kings chapter 10) who visited Solomon was called the Queen of the South by Yahshua (Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31) and she was, for all of the circumstances of her mention, surely of the Adamic Race. Strabo mentions “Sabaeans” in company with Nabataean arabs (16.4.19-21).
Ophir (Genesis 10:29) was surely somewhere on the eastern coast of Africa, South of Ethiopia. This is evident from the account of goods obtained from Ophir, given in I Kings chapters 9 and 10, and from the fact that the place was reached from a port on the Red Sea (Ezion-geber in the A.V.), and yet also from the name Ophir itself. For Ophir is certainly the same name as the Latin Afer, which preceded Africa as the Roman name for the continent. Although the Greeks knew not the names Ophir or Afer, at least in their writings, for they had the continent divided into but three districts, Egypt, Ethiopia and Libya, they did have a word, ἀφρός (aphros) which meant “foam”. Other similar Greek words are ἄφρων (aphrôn), “without sense...crazed, frantic...silly, foolish” and ἀφροσύνη (aphrosunê), “folly, thoughtlessness, senselessness”. While many may see the similarity of these words as coincidences, I am not so sure I believe in such coincidences, that they are coincidences at all. Also, it is evident that the derivation of the word Africa from Afer in Latin, actually follows the convention found in Greek for declensions of the Genitive case (i.e. kurios, kuriakos; phoinos, phoinikos). It should also not be thought of as merely coincidental, that the Greek names for Europe and Libya, and the Roman name for Africa, can all be shown to have come from the Hebrew tongue.
While searching for the root of our English word “black”, I came across the Hebrew words balaq (Strong’s #1110), “to annihilate”, balag (#1082) “to break off” or “to invade (with destruction)” and the Greek word βλάξ (blax), genitive form βλακός (blakos) which means “slack in mind and body, stupid, a dolt”. Are these also coincidences?
Whatever happened to Ophir, we certainly have no record of, and especially since the Romans never wandered into Africa beyond Ethiopia, although they surely knew of the land there (Strabo 16.4.14).
So we have the Shemites, and the Hebrews, and here it should be evident that these terms have today been misappropriated by people to whom they do not belong.
There were, by the Septuagint chronology, nearly 1800 years between the time of the Deluge and the writing of the Pentateuch, and about 800 more to the time of Ezekiel and Jeremiah, and to the advent of written records among the Greeks. Homer and Hesiod, it can be shown, were contemporaries of Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. All throughout this time the various tribes of Adamites sought new and better land throughout the known world and points beyond, naming new places and adopting those names. With so few written records, how difficult it is to determine their movements! Homer, the earliest Greek writer known to us, and whom Strabo considered ἐξ άρχῆς (“from the beginning”) for the validity of his records, and “the first geographer” (1.1.11), being a contemporary of the Biblical prophets, wrote rather late in the history of Israel!
What the Greeks looked like
That the Greeks (and the Italians) were in ancient times fully homogenous with the Caucasians of northern Europe as most of them appear today, and certainly not with the current olive-skinned inhabitants of those regions (along with most of southern Europe) is fully evident everywhere in their art and literature.
Among Homer’s oft repeated epithets were “Hera with the snow-white arms” and “grey-eyed Athena”. Achilles is described as having “red-gold hair” (Iliad near 23:160). When Menelaos was shot with an arrow, removal of his clothing for treatment revealed the “ivory white” flesh of his thigh. In the Odyssey Menelaos is called the “red-haired captain” (4:17-85). Describing Odysseus Homer tells of him with crisping hair in curls “but all red-golden” (6:159-232). Hesiod in his Catalog of Women sings of “golden-haired Menelaos” (1.67). The Homeric Hymn To Demeter tells of “golden-haired” Demeter (1.302). Selené is “white armed” and “bright-tressed” (To Selené lines 17-18). Polyneices is described as “golden-haired” in The Thebaid (p. 2) of the Epic Cycle, and the Trojan Ganymedes is “golden-haired” also, according to the Homeric Hymn To Aphroditê. These descriptions, and many others like them, survived throughout all Greek and Roman literature and were used of Greeks and Romans well into the Christian era. They were also used of the early Phoenicians, and the Phoenician women of Thebes in Greece were said to be fair and blonde, as they are described in the tragic poetry of both Euripides and Aeschylus and in the works of the later Roman poet Virgil.
The archaeological record fully supports these descriptions. Hundreds, maybe even thousands, of murals and mosaics from Greco-Roman territories display tall, fair, usually (but not always) sun-tanned men, and tall, fair, lily-white women. Greek men, like Phoenicians, Romans, and Hebrews (i.e. John 21:17; Josephus’ Antiquities 12.5.1 (12:241)) were typically naked while working outdoors, while women spent far less time outside, always fully clothed. Josephus also attests that Judaeans and Greeks were indistinguishable, except that Judaeans were circumcised (Antiquities 12.5.1 (12:241)). Of course the Biblical record also agrees with this, i.e. David (I Sam. 16:12 and 17:42), Solomon (Cant. 5:9-16), and also Lam. 4:7, and of Noah in I Enoch 105:2-4 (Lawrence’s verse division).
Although there are certainly “arab” or “olive-skinned” types found among the archaeological records, in the Roman era and in lands controlled by Rome: even in places in Italy itself, these are but a small minority and not at all representative of the originators of Mediterranean or near eastern civilization, nor of the general populations, until long after the fall of Rome and the Islamic conquests. The artwork of the Byzantine culture in the east reflects a predominantly White society which survived until the conquest of its territories, first by arabs and then later by the Turks.
“Salvation” and Israel
The word “salvation” appears often in the Old Testament in promises to Israel, and it is actually intended to mean preservation or safety (see Strong’s Hebrew #s 3444, 3468, and 8668). Israel was promised to be preserved in this world, not only in the spiritual afterworld. But preserved from what? The answer to that lies first in the prophets, and the foretold destruction of the nations surrounding Israel in Palestine, and in Psalm 2, which foretold that Israel would conquer the other nations (Genesis chapter 10 nations), and then in prophecies such as those found at Daniel chapter 8 and Revelation chapter 9, and the plagues described there, which destroy much of the Adamic world unto this very day.
Egypt and Ethiopia had been overrun by black Nubians in the 8th century B.C. Assyria, already a nation bastardized with Horite and Hittite blood, was destroyed by the Scythian Israelites at the end of the 7th century, after which the Israelite Kimmerians overran all of Anatolia. In the 6th century B.C. the entire Near East was conquered by Persia, then in the 4th century by the Greeks, and in the 3rd by the Parthians, and in the 1st by Rome, which competed with Parthia for territory. All during this time the Scythian and Keltic Israelites, along with the Japhethite tribes who also escaped to the north, were multiplying and spreading themselves throughout Europe and also many parts of Asia. By the time of Christ, however, Israelites had conquered and come to inhabit all of the known world, as the Romans in the west, the Parthians in the east, and the Germanic Scythians in the north. And also by this time, except perhaps for the Ionian Greeks at Athens, who were under Roman rule, and the Sarmatians (or Slavs) and related tribes of northern Europe, all Japhethites, none of the other Genesis chapter 10 nations had even a legitimate claim to any longer being a nation, if they were to be found at all. All of them are now lost to history.
Since the fall of Rome, most of the formerly White Roman world has been lost. Africa and Mesopotamia, Spain and Sicily were all overrun by arabs, destroying much of the Adamic blood of those regions. After the arab conquests arose the Turks from the east, who overran Parthia, Anatolia (Turkey today), Greece and the Balkans. While the Turks were destroying the Adamic blood of Greece and the Byzantine Empire, the Mongols invaded Russia, conquering much of southern Russia, the Ukraine, and subjecting modern Romania. While the Russians managed to defeat and drive out the Mongols in the 15th century, the Turks held Greece into the 19th century, and most Greeks today should be considered Turks, or arabs. Muslim tribes still inhabit the Balkans. All of the western Mongol areas, formerly all White, adopted the Islamic religion early in the second millennium.
And so not only have all of the regions of the former Genesis chapter 10 Adamic nations been overrun and destroyed by the alien invasions, but also many of the children of Israel were also lost in these invasions. Today the White race in Europe is again being invaded by arabs and Turks, and now “legally”!
A.I.A. Archaeological Institute of America.
A.V. The Authorized King James Version of the Bible.
LXX The Septuagint, the early (c. 280 B.C.) translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek.
MT The Masoretic Text, the Hebrew Scriptures as they were compiled and edited by the jews in the late first millennium A.D. The King James Old Testament, and most others, are based on this text.
- Historical Essays