The Jews were sinking their claws into America even before the nation was born.
Most of the early White colonists of North America came to settle here, at least initially, in order to escape various oppressive conditions in Europe. For instance, there are the famous accounts of the Plymouth colonists seeking religious freedom. The entire colony of Pennsylvania also, which originally included New Jersey and Delaware, was intended to be a Christian nation safe from the religious oppression of Europe. But it was not only freedom from religious tyranny which the early settlers sought. There is a book which tells, citing original documentation, of the resettlement of Germans who were never able to recover economically from the Thirty Years' War, and therefore Queen Anne gave them a grant of a large portion of Upstate New York, which they began to settle in 1708. (MacWethy) The original records describe these settlers as having led simple lives at agriculture or one of the trades, and few of them are found to be otherwise. Then, in contrast, there were the Jews.
The first Jews in America were not in pursuit of religious freedom, or religion at all. These were Sephardic Jews from the Caribbean and South America, whose ancestors had fled from the Inquisition on the ships of the Conquistadors. Other Sephardic Jews, whose ancestors had left Spain and Portugal for Holland, had come to New Amsterdam with the Dutch. These Jews, who maintained commercial connections with their kindred in Europe and Africa and established themselves in the Caribbean and South America, were already heavily involved in the slave trade and trafficking of merchandise in the New World long before the English established a formidable presence here. These circumstances gave Jews a huge advantage in the newly-forming English colonies, where most Christians still rejected usury, worked with their hands and traded with barter. Examples of Jews engaged in these things are numerous, and here we shall mention some of those which are notable.
Aaron Lopez, a Sephardic Jew merchant who established himself in Newport, Rhode Island, owned over two dozen ships, many which carried Biblical names, and recorded at least a dozen voyages to Africa made in order to acquire negro slaves. Lopez had commercial interests in the West Indies, British Isles, and throughout the American colonies. He had his own wharf, and in addition to the slave trade, he was was involved in the trade or manufacture of ships, barrels, candles, rum, chocolate, pork, molasses, bottled beer, textiles, clothes, shoes, hats, and bottles. By 1749, Lopez was generally considered to be one of the largest merchants in the country. Lopez conducted his affairs like many of the early Jewish merchants in America, whose households and businesses were entirely dependent upon negro slave labor, and whose ready willingness to use and trade slaves gave them a large business advantage over their White counterparts. Lopez did suffer some losses during the war at the hands of the British, however after his death in 1782 his son-in-law Abraham Pereira Mendes carried on his business quite successfully. Lopez was not the only prominent Jewish slave trader and merchant in New England. Another example from Newport is Isaac Elizer (1720-1807), who being partnered with another Jew, Samuel Moses, was a merchant-shipper who dealt in slaves, liquor, and whatever else he could trade between Africa and ports in the Caribbean.
Another Jew, Moses Michael Hays, was a prominent Boston merchant with overseas connections. Hays was born in New York City in 1739 to Dutch immigrants Judah Hays and Rebecca Michaels Hays. Judah Hays took his son into his shipping and retail business and, upon his death in 1764, left him the business and largest share of his assets. Like other Jewish merchants, “Hays and his family left Newport for Boston ahead of the British occupation in 1776. Hays opened a shipping office in Boston and was among the first merchants there to underwrite shipbuilding, trade and insurance to newly opened Far Eastern markets. In 1784, Hays became a founder and the first depositor of the Massachusetts Bank, still doing business today as Fleet Bank Corporation. With his close friend Paul Revere and fourteen other Boston businessmen, Hays formed several insurance companies.” (ajhs.org) Hays is a poster-boy for Jews in colonial America, since he openly asserted his Jewish identity and was nevertheless accepted among the Bostonian social elites. Hays was also a large contributor to the supposedly Christian Harvard College. No wonder the Christian colonies became such a safe haven for Jewry. Today over a third of Harvard College is Jewish, its students and its faculty. (collegexpress.com, theoccidentalobserver.net) It seems that Liberalism in New England is nearly as old a problem as New England has existed.
One of the earliest Jews in New Jersey was a Sephardic Jew named Aaron Louzada, who settled in Bound Brook in 1698. The Louzada family was originally from Barbados. Louzada's ancestors can be traced to the time of the Inquisition. Many of Louzada's relatives were landowners and merchants in the Caribbean. Louzada himself held many parcels of land in Central New Jersey. He was a dealer in spices and liquor and owned slaves. Many of the Sephardic Jews who came to New Jersey in the 18th century either were relatives, in-laws or business acquaintances of Louzada. One of Louzada's descendants, Jacob, had sided with the British and fled to Nova Scotia with other loyalists in 1783. (Tulchinsky, p. 83) The descendants of Jacob Louzada still have an impact upon the Canadian province to this day.
The Gratz family of Philadelphia was active in the war for independence on the part of the Revolutionists. They were also land speculators, slave and fur traders, and they were slaveholders until the Civil War. Before that war, one of the family scions, Benjamin Gratz, had relocated to Kentucky. He was a longtime friend of Henry Clay and supporter of his Presidential ambitions. (The Letters of Rebecca Gratz) “The brothers Michael and Barnard Gratz of Philadelphia, and Joseph Simon and Levy Andrew Levy of Lancaster, engaged in extensive western trade and land speculation. The Gratz brothers established posts along the Western frontier and traded with the Indians.” (Foner, p. 7) In the colonial period White Christians were fighting the Indians, and evidently Jewish merchants were reaping a healthy share of the financial benefits.
Another Jewish mercantile family in early Philadelphia were the Franks family, which were merchants in the “Indian trade” and major suppliers of weapons to the colonists who were fighting the Indians. It is believed that Levy Andrew Levy was an agent of Franks when he participated in giving small-pox infected blankets to the Indians.
“During the four colonial wars, Jewish merchants provided equipment and supplies for the British army and provincial troops. Between 1740 and 1743, Abraham Minis of Savannah operated boats shuttling supplies to James Ogelthorpe's troops. For some Jewish merchants, military contracts became an extremely lucrative business. Jacob Franks of New York and his son David of Philadelphia were the chief suppliers of the British army during the French and Indian Wars. They furnished the supplies used in General James Braddock's unsuccessful attack on Fort Duquesne in 1755 and helped equip George Washington's expedition that took the fort in 1758. Jacob and David Franks received over £750,000 for provisioning British armies and garrisons. Mathias Bush of Philadelphia, Joseph Simon and Levy Andrew Levy of Lancaster, and Uriah Hendricks of New York were also actively engaged in supplying the armed forces. And Jewish sutlers were stationed with the troops at forts on Lake George and along the upper Hudson River. It was also during these colonial wars that privateering became big business, and Jewish merchants joined in this hazardous but lucrative activity, either as individual owners or members of groups.” (Foner, p. 10)
Many others, such as Lindo, Maas, Mordecai, Levy, Woolf, Delyon, Isaacs, Cohen, were all the names of prominent Jewish individuals or families operating in the trade of slaves and commodities with their co-religionists in Europe, the Caribbean and elsewhere in the colonies while owning slaves, industries and plantations in the Carolinas and Virginia. As a side note, one endeavor was in the trade of indigo dye, which used in textiles endures today in the form of American blue jeans. At one point, ten thousand slaves were employed in the Jewish-controlled indigo industry. The Jewish Monsanto family of Louisiana, the ancestors of the famous Monsantos of seed-company fortune, were merchants, slave owners and traders, and plantation owners. Isaac Rodrigues Monsanto was one of the first known Jews to settle in New Orleans.
Today Monsanto is famous for its genetically modified seed, for mixing the DNA from diverse species and corrupting the Creation of God. It seems to be an ages-old practice with this family, for Isaac's son, Jacob, was mating with his slaves as soon as the family established itself in Louisiana. “Jacob Monsanto, son of Isaac Rodrigues Monsanto, one of the very first known Jews to settle in New Orleans, owner of a several-hundred-acre plantation at Manchac, fell in love with his slave, Mamy or Maimi William. Their daughter Sophia, grew up to be a lovely quadroon.” (noirg.org)
It can be argued that Jews were greatly reliant upon the institution of slavery for their success, and that they would not have been able to gain the business advantages which they had if it were not for slavery. Evidence of this is circumstantial, but nonetheless convincing. For instance, in 1740 a restriction against slavery was instituted in Savannah, Georgia, and many Jews left the city rather than hire free men for labor. An exception is recorded in the Minis family, which waited out the restriction and returned to the practice as soon as it was lifted. (Foner, p. 19) A family scion, Philip Minis, was president of Savannah’s Congregation Mikveh Israel. He also served during the Revolution as paymaster to the Continental Army for Georgia.
“In a flock of sheep, wolves left to roam freely will always have full bellies. In a Christian society, the Jews – whose nature it is to profit from usury, gambling, slave-trading and every other vice and racket they can conjure - will always acquire the lion's share of the wealth. So it was in early America.” (Finck, Philthadelphia)
“Far more important than the contribution of the one hundred or so Jews who served in the Continental army and state militias were the commercial activities of Jewish entrepreneurs who, in the words of Jacob R. Marcus, helped to 'keep commodities flowing' to the army and advanced indispensable financing to the revolutionary government. Joseph Simon of Lancaster, for example, supplied the Continental army with rifles, ammunition, drums, blankets, and other supplies, and provided money to pay for a messenger service between the city and Washington's army. Jewish entrepreneurs provided essential supplies by running the British blockade and serving as civilian purveyors to the armed forces. They also outfitted privateers and extended credit for the purchase of materiel and for paying soldiers. As brokers they served the revolutionary cause by selling government bonds.” (Foner, p. 19)
Note that Foner rather candidly admitted that only “a hundred or so Jews” served in the Continental Army, out of the tens of thousands of soldiers who served throughout the War. And while not all merchants were Jewish, conventional histories clearly under-represent the large number of Jewish merchants and their role in the War, if indeed they are mentioned at all. Foner, along with other Jewish historians, describe the Jewish role in the war but endeavor to depict them in the best possible light. They do the same for the predominant Jewish role in the slave trade.
Furthermore, “civilian purveyors to the armed forces” earned rather hefty commissions for their services. From a current U.S. Army publication: “Long before the Revolution the payment of commissions to purchasing commissaries and quartermasters had become an established business procedure. Though contracts for providing supplies to British troops during the French and Indian War were placed with English merchants, the latter had agents in the colonies to act for them. Provincial troops participating in that war also had to be supplied. For the attack on Crown Point, for example, Rhode Island appointed a New York merchant as its agent to supply its troops with food and clothing, negotiate money bills for the province, and sell all produce sent to him as payment for the colony's account. For this service he received commissions of 5 percent for purchases, 2 1/2 percent for money, and 7 1/2 percent for storage and sale.” (Risch, ch. 1, p. 16)
While many Christian Americans were making great sacrifices for their cause without any expectation of remuneration, that “indispensable financing” from the Jews came in the form of loans. For instance, the Touro Synagogue says of Baltimore Jew Jacob Hart: “Born in Fürth, Bavaria, Hart immigrated to America, settling in Baltimore in 1775. He established himself as a merchant, and though in America only a year at the outbreak of war, aligned himself with the patriot cause. When General Lafayette visited Baltimore in 1791 and told the population of the army's needs, the merchants of the city subscribed for a loan. Jacob Hart was at the head of the list of contributors, with the largest contribution (2000 out of 5,000 pounds contributed).” Indeed, Jews always portray their endeavors in the best possible light. A contribution made to a loan subscription is not a donation. Rather, Hart was merely “getting in on the action”, expecting to make gains from the practice of usury and thereby profit from the war effort. For things such as this the Jews sought to be rewarded with citizenship after the war, and also achieved that being the effective and persistent salesmen which they are. Their profiteering and self-enrichment were transformed into personal suffering and hardship in post-Revolution politics, as they used their stories to win themselves allotments of land and lucrative public appointments.
Jews also often lay claim to wartime heroism which in reality has been earned by others. These claims lend further insight into the nature of Jewish commerce and wartime profiteering. While the Jew may risk the cost of a ship, the cost of a ship is only a risk of capital, a merely routine business expense. The Jew was certainly not the sailor risking his life, as the greatest majority of those were also White Christians. “Among the most daring of the [British] blockade runners was the firm of Isaac Moses and Company, based in Philadelphia, whose ships made the run from Amsterdam to St. Eustatius in the Dutch Caribbean, which served as an American supply base until its seizure by the British in 1781. The new rulers vented their anger on local Jews, stripping them of their property and deporting thirty to the island of St. Kitts. The multifaceted efforts of Isaac Moses and his partners were of considerable significance to the American cause. To help finance the invasion of Canada in 1775, the company made available over $20,000 in specie in exchange for Continental paper currency. Moses was also among the more than twenty Jewish merchants involved in outfitting privateers who harassed British shipping during the Revolution. He also provided a personal bond of three thousand British pounds to provide supplies for the American army. Other Jewish merchants who advanced funds included Jacob Hart, who loaned money to pay Lafayette's troops, and Philip Minis, who as paymaster advanced money to the Continental forces fighting in Georgia. Some, including Minis, were eventually repaid, at least in part, by Congress. Mordecai Sheftall, who had dipped into his own pocket to supply Continental troops, was not among the fortunate ones. After the war, he repeatedly appealed without success for a settlement of his pay accounts and reimbursement for his advances. 'I want nothing but justice,' reads one of his petitions to Congress. Eventually Sheftall received about five percent of what he claimed to be owed.” (Foner, ibid. While we would want to investigate the Sheftall affair further, to his credit, elsewhere in his article Foner is rather candid concerning the role of Haym Solomon.)
These Jewish money-lenders and wartime profiteers are the very people to whom George Washington was referring where he mentioned the “tribe of black gentry” in his papers. Washington must have been familiar with them from his early days as an officer in the Indian Wars. They seem to have vexed him throughout, and perhaps beyond, the Revolution. Discussing speculators in the currency, the general said in 1779: “This tribe of black gentry work more effectually against us, than the enemy’s arms. They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties. and the great cause we are engaged in.” (Schroeder, pp. 125-126)
But how can we be certain that Washington was talking about these Jews? Discussing the very same topic a year earlier, he said: “It is much to be lamented, that each State, long ere this, has not hunted them down, as pests to society, and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America. I would to God, that some one of the most atrocious in each State, was hung upon a gallows, five times as high as the one prepared for Haman. No punishment, in my opinion, is too great for the man who can build his greatness upon his country’s ruin.” (Schroeder, p. 126)
The reference to Haman is a reference to the mythical character of the Book of Esther, the Persian general who had desired to have killed all of the Jews within the empire. In the story, the Jews prevail and retribution is granted. The cry to hang wartime profiteers and speculators upon a gallows “five times as high as the one prepared for Haman” is a cry of vindication for Haman himself. While we do not esteem Esther to be a canonical book of Scripture, we can appreciate Washington's reference to Haman in connection with the "tribe of black gentry", since it clearly shows that he was talking about Jews!
The international, profiteering, unpatriotic Jew has corrupted America from its very inception. They ruled the economy of the nation from its earliest days, not because of their talent or ability, but simply because of their nature. While it is the nature of the White Christian to work first for community, it is the nature of the Jew to work primarily for profit, and then to use that profit in order to rule over communities. While this may be difficult to quantify, the proof is in the pudding – as our own New England ancestors liked to say. The “old money” those same ancestors often mentioned, was indeed Jewish money.
If George Washington had only been explicit in his warnings about the true nature of these “enemies … to the happiness of America”, rather than using such subtle, veiled language, would America have better withstood such Jewish subterfuge? Men such as Ezra Stiles were already singing the praises of such Jews, and he was a close friend of both Aaron Lopez and Moses Michael Hays as his own diaries attest – or betray. Stiles, a Congregationalist minister, became the first president of Yale. Harvard College was already indebted to the Jew Hays for his 'generosity'. While more explicit statements from Washington may not have prevented the corruption of America, he may have nevertheless increased awareness about this brood of vipers. The first Christian apostles were braver, and the early New England clergy certainly betrayed them.
The apostle Paul warned us about the Jews: “Who both killed the Lord Jesus, and the prophets, and have persecuted us; and they please not God, and are contrary to all men” (2 Thessalonians 2:15). Likewise the apostle John also warned us: “Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God. He that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed: For he that biddeth him God speed is partaker of his evil deeds.” (2 John 9-11). Indeed, it has been a long time since Christians have actually practised anything resembling Christianity.
The Book of Names Especially Relating to The Early Palatines and the First Settlers in the Mohawk Valley, Lou D. MacWethy, published by The Enterprise and News, St. Johnsville, NY, 1933.
Jews and the American Military from the Colonial Era to the Eve of the Civil War, Jack D. Foner
The Letters of Rebecca Gratz found at http://archive.org
The ADL-published booklet American Jews: Their Story, by Oscar Handlin, synopses of which can be found on several websites (i.e. fourwinds10.net, noirg.org).
Early American Jews, from the Touro Synagogue website.
Moses Michael Hays "A Most Valuable Citizen", American Jewish Historical Society (ajhs.org)
The Works of James Buchanan Comprising his Speeches, State Papers, and Private Correspondence Collected and Edited By John Bassett Moore Volume VII 1846-1848
Taking Root: the origins of the Canadian Jewish Community, Gerald Tulchinsky, Stoddart, 1997
The Maxims of Washington; Political, Social, Moral and Religious., Collected and Arranged by John Frederick Schroeder, D.D. and published by D. Appleton and Company in 1854.
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