History Of Ireland Part 6 of 6

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XVI.

Donnchadh, son of Domhnall, son of Murchadh, son of Diarmaid, son of Airmeadhach Caoch, son of Conall Guithbhinn, son of Suibhne, son of Colman Mor, son of Diarmaid, son of Fearghus Ceirrbheoil, son of Conall Creamhthaine, son of Niall Naoighiallach, of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland twenty-seven years, and it was on his pillow he died.

Aodh Oirndighe, son of Niall Frasach, son of Fearghal, son of Maolduin, son of Maoilfithrigh, son of Aodh Uairiodhnach, son of Domhnall, son of Muircheartach, son of Muireadhach, son of Eoghan, son of Niall Naoighiallach, of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland twenty-four years. Dunlaith, daughter of Flaithbheartach, son of Loingseach king of Cineal gConaill, was the mother of Aodh Oirndighe. And he is called Aodh Oirndighe, for when he was weaned from his nurse's breasts he set to suck his fists as if he were sucking his nurse's breasts; hence he was called Aodh Oirndighe or Aodh Doirndighe.

It was in the reign of Aodh Oirndighe that the Lochlonnaigh first came to Ireland in the year of the Lord 820. And twelve years after that the tyrant Turgesius came to Ireland, and it was Olchobhar, son of Cionaoth, son of Conghal, son of Maolduin, son of Aodh Beannain, who was king of Munster at that time according to certain chroniclers. But the Policronicon where it treats of Ireland in its chronicle says that it was when Feidhlimidh, son of Criomhthann, reigned in Munster that the Lochlonnaigh first came to Ireland. Thus it speaks: From the coming of Patrick to the time of Feidhlimidh, son of Criomhthann, king of Munster, thirty-three kings held the sovereignty of Ireland during the period of the four hundred years that elapsed from the coming of Patrick to Ireland till Feidhlimidh assumed the sovereignty of Munster; and in the time of Feidhlimidh came the Norwegians with their leader Turgesius to conquer that country, (that is, Ireland).{Ab adventu Sancti Patricii usque ad Feilimidii regis tempora 33 reges per quadringentos annos in Hibernia regnaverunt, Tempore autem Feilimidii Noruaegienses duce Turgesio terram hanc occuparunt.}’’

Others say that it was when Airtre, son of Cathal, reigned in Munster, the Lochlonnaigh began to come to plunder Ireland. And in this they are right. However, they did not get a grip of Ireland though they harassed the country. Moreover what the Policronicon states is true where it says that it was in the reign of Feidhlimidh, son of Criomhthann, over Munster that the tyrant Turgesius, who reduced Ireland to slavery, came. True also is the statement of those who assert that the Lochlonnaigh came to Ireland in the reign of Olchobhar over Munster, but the tribe who came hither then were the Dainfhir or Danes from Dania, that is Denmark, and it is these are called Duibhgheinnte or Dubhlochlonnaigh in the old books of the seanchus, while the Norwegians are called Finngheinnte or Fionnlochlonnaigh.

Understand now, O reader, that Lochlonnaigh in Irish is not a specific name for any particular tribe, but Lochlonnach means a man who is strong at sea; for lonn means strong and loch means the sea; and since the inhabitants of those countries of the north of Europe held for a time powerful sway over Ireland, as we shall hereafter relate, the Irish called them Lochlannaigh, that is men strong at sea, because of the great sway they acquired over the Gaels as we shall show below on the authority of the book which is called Cogadh Gall re Gaedhealaibh. Here follows a short summary of the history.

While Aodh Oirndighe reigned over Ireland and Airtre son of Cathal was king of Munster, the foreigners came to Caoin-inis O bhFathaidh, their number being the manning of sixty ships, and they ravaged the country and plundered and burned Inis Labhrainne and Dairinis; and the Eoghanacht of Loch Lein gave them battle, and therein were slain four hundred and sixteen foreigners. Another fleet bringing Fionnlochlonnaigh, that is Norwegians, came to Ireland the second year of Feidhlimidh son of Croimhthann's reign over Munster, and they ravaged and plundered Inis Teimhin and Beannchair and Cluain Uama and Ros Maolaidh and Sceilig Mhichil. Another fleet came to the north of Ireland and they plundered Beannchair in Ulster and slew its bishop, and its learned people, and they broke the shrine of Comhghall. Another fleet of the same people came to Ui Cinnsealaigh, and they plundered Teach Munna, Teach Moling and Inistiog; and they went thence to Osruighe and they plundered the country; and the Ossorians gave them battle and seven hundred and seven of the Lochlonnaigh fell. Similarly Dun Deargmhuighe and Inis Eoghanain and Disirt Tiobraide and Lios Mor were spoiled by them. They burned and spoiled Ceall Molaise, Gleann da Loch, and Cluain Ard Mobheadhog and Sord Cholum Chille and the Daimhliag Chiarain and Slaine and Cealla Saile and Cluain Uama and Mungairid and the greater number of the churches of all Ireland.Another fleet of them entered the harbour of Luimneach and spoiled and plundered Corca Baiscinn and Tradruidhe and Ui Conaill Gabhra, and the Ui Conaill gave them battle at Seannaid, and many of the Lochlonnaigh were slain therein, but we do not know the full number. After that Turgesius the tyrant came with a large fleet to the north of Ireland and became ruler of all the Lochlonnaigh that were then in Ireland, and they spoiled all the north of Ireland, and they let the Danair loose on the entire of Leath Cuinn; and they put some of their vessels on Loch nEachach and others in Lughmhuigh and on Loch Ribh, and they plundered Ard Macha thrice in a single month. And Turgesius took possession of the abbacy of Ard Macha, as Columcille had foretold, as he himself says:

    1. A fleet on Loch Ribh,
      The Gentiles will be greatly uplifted;
      Of them will be the abbot of Ard Macha,
      And the tyranny of a despot.

The saints of Ireland foretold that evil would befal Ireland through the pride of their rulers, and through their tyranny, hence the oppression of the Lochlonnaigh came on them in the reign of Airtre son of Cathal over Munster, and of Aodh Oirndighe over all Ireland. And it was with the tyrant Turgesius that the Lochlonnaigh came again to Ireland when Feidhlimidh, son of Criomhthann, was king of Munster; and it was this Turgesius who banished Farannan the primate and his clergy from Ard Macha, as we have said, and he took their place himself, and he was seized by Maoilseachlainn afterwards, who drowned him in Loch Ainninn, as we shall relate below. It was in the reign over Ireland of Aodh Oirndighe that the Lochlonnaigh plundered Inis Phradraig and many of the islands that lie between Ireland and Alba.

It was about this time that Patrick's tribute was imposed on the people of Connaught by Gormghal, son of Din Dathaidh, and Aodh Oirndighe divided Meath between the two sons of Donnchadh, son of Domhnall, to wit, Conchubhar and Oilill; and I Coluimcille in Alba was burned by the Lochlonnaigh at this time, and Laighin was twice plundered in one month by Aodh Oirndighe, king of Ireland. In the following year, after the Feast of St. Patrick, there were great thunder and lightning in Ireland, which killed one thousand and ten persons, male and female, between Corca Baiscinn and the sea, and Inis Fide burst itself into three parts, and in that place as much land as would support twelve cows was deluged, the sea having come over it.

It was about this time that Aodh Oirndighe, king of Ireland, together with a numerous host went into Leinster to Dun Cuair; and he divided the province of Leinster between two, that is between Muireadhach, son of Ruaraidh and Muireadhach, son of Bran. After that the Lochlonnaigh burned Inis Muireadhaigh. About this time Eochaidh, bishop of Tamhlacht, died; and the Lochlonnaigh wreaked great slaughter on the men of Umhall, on which occasion Coscrach, son of Flonn Abhradh and Dunadhach, king of Umhall, died; and Eidirsceol, son of Ceallach, bishop of Gleann da Loch, and Siadhal, bishop of Ros Commain, died. After that Aodh Oirndighe, king of Ireland, was slain in the Battle of Da Fearta by Maolcanaigh.

XVII.

Conchubhhar, son of Donnchadh, son of Domhnall, son of Murchadh, son of Diarmaid, son of Airmeadhach Caoch, son of Conall Guithbhinn, son of Suibhne, son of Colman Mor, son of Diarmaid, son of Fearghus Ceirrbheoil, son of Conall Creamhthaine, son of Niall Naoighiallach, of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland fourteen years. It was in the reign of this Conchubhar over Ireland that Ceannfaolaidh, bishop of Ath Truim, died, and Eochaidh O Tuathail, bishop of Lughmhagh; and Inis Daimhli and Corcach were plundered by the Lochlonnaigh; and Patrick's tribute was imposed on Munster by Feidhlimidh son of Criomhthann, and by Airtre son of Conchubhar, and Patrick's tribute was imposed on Connaught by the same Airtre; and Beannchair and Dun Leathghlaise were plundered by the Lochlonnaigh; and they burned Magh Bile and its penitential cells. About this time Muireadhach, son of Eochaidh, was king of Ulster, and Conchubhar, son of Donnchadh, king of Ireland, inflicted the Defeat of Aonach Tailltean on the Gaileanga, wherein many of them fell; and the Lochlonnaigh inflicted a great defeat on the Leinstermen at Drom Connla, where Conuing, son of Cu Choingiolt, king of the Forthuath, fell, and several others with him. After that Ard Macha was plundered by the Lochlonnaigh, and a month afterwards Lughmhagh and Finé Chiannachta and Lios Mor with all their churches were plundered by them.

Now up to this time there were four chief schools in Ireland, to wit, a school at Ard Macha in which there were seven thousand students according to an old scroll which was found in Oxford, and a school at Cashel, a school at Dun da Leathghlais and a school at Lios Mor, together with numerous colleges as well. But they were now broken up. After this Conchubhar son of Donnchadh, king of Ireland, died.

Niall Caille, son of Aodh Oirndighe, son of Niall Frasach, son of Fearghal, son of Maolduin, son of Maolfithrigh, son of Aodh Uairiodhnach, son of Domhnall, son of Muircheartach, son of Muireadhach, son of Eoghan, son of Niall Naoighiallach, of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland fifteen years. Meadhbh, daughter of Innreachtach, son of Muireadhach, king of Connaught, was the mother of this Niall. And he is called Niall Caille, for one day when Niall with a large host of calvalry approached the river which is called Callann, and there was a great flood in the river at that time, a youth of the king's party went before them to explore the river and was drowned. The king asked the party to go to his relief and he got no one to go. The king himself went on his horse to relieve him, and as the horse's feet touched the bank of the river, the bank gave way and the river carried away the king, and he was drowned, as it was foretold him that he would die by being drowned at Callann. For this reason he is called Niall Caille.

It was in the reign of this Niall that Diarmaid, son of Tomaltach, king of Connaught, died, and Loch Bricirnne was plundered against Conghalach, son of Eochaidh, and he himself was slain by the Lochlonnaigh; and Niall Caille, king of Ireland, went with a large host to Leinster to appoint a king over them, that is Bran, son of Faolan. After that Fearna Maodhog was plundered by the Lochlonnaigh, and Mungairid and many churches in Urmhumha were burned by them; and similarly Cill Dara was plundered by the Lochlonnaigh. It was about this time that the crews of sixty ships came from Normandy to the Boyne, and forty ships to the river Lithfe, and that fleetful plundered Magh Lithfe, that is the county of Ath Cliath, and Magh Breagh, that is Fine Ghall, their churches, fortresses and dwellings. After this the Lochlonnaigh won a battle over the Ui Neill at Inbhear na mBarc, between the Sionainn and the sea, wherein many fell though only their chief leaders are mentioned; and Inis Cealltra and Cluain Mic Nois and all the churches of Loch Eirne were burned by the Lochlonnaigh.

It was about this time that Feidhlimidh, son of Criomhthann, was king of Munster and archbishop of Leath Mogha, and he went to plunder Leath Cuinn from Biorra to Teamhair Bhreagh, and he was detained at Teamhair; and Innreachtach, son of Maolduin, was slain by Feidhlimidh's party at Teamhair, and soon after that Feidhlimidh, son of Criomhthann, died, having been then twenty seven years king of Munster; and the character the Leabhar Irsi gives of him is: the excellent, wise man and anchorite of the Scots, rested in peace. {Optimus sapiens et anachorita Scotorum quievit.}’’

From this it is to be inferred that Feidhlimidh, son of Criomhthann, was a wise and pious man in his own time.

This Feidhlimidh made the circuit of Leath Cuinn, and paid the rents that by law its kings were entitled to from the king of Cashel—and the food-supply that they were bound to give in exchange for them—and the wages that the kings of Cashel were bound to pay to the kings of Leath Cuinn and to the kings of Leinster, and to the chief territorial lords that were under them, as St. Beinen, son of Seiscnen, primate of Ireland, sets it down in the Book of Rights in the poem which begins: Every king is entitled to get from the king of Cashel. Now the following are the rent and wages of these kings from the king of Cashel, and his circuit amongst them and his seasons for getting provisions from them on the occasion of it; a hundred swords, a hundred goblets, a hundred steeds and a hundred mantles for the king of Cruachain, and provision for two quarters from the king of Cruachain for the king of Cashel, and that he should escort him to Tir Chonaill; twenty bracelets or rings, twenty chess-boards, twenty steeds for the king of Cineal Conaill, and provision for a month from the king of Cineal Conaill, and that he should escort him to Tir Eoghain; fifty gob1ets, fifty swords for the king of Oileach, and provision for a month, and that he should escort him to Tulach Og; thirty goblets, thirty swords for the prince of Tulach Og, provision for twelve days from him for the king of Munster, and that he should escort him to Oirghialla; eight coats of mail, three score tunics and three score steeds for the king of Oirghialla, and provision for him for a month in Eamhain, and that he should escort him to Ulster to the clann Rudhruighe; a hundred goblets, a hundred mantles, a hundred swords, a hundred steeds and ten ships for the king of Ulster and provision for two months from the clann Rudhruighe for him, and that he should escort him to Tara; thirty coats of mail, thirty rings, a hundred steeds and thirty chess-boards for the king of Tara, and provision for a month from the king of Tara for him and the four tribes of Tara to escort him to Ath Cliath; ten women, ten ships, ten steeds for the king of Ath Cliath and provision for a month for him from the king of Ath Cliath, and that he should escort him to Leinster; thirty cows, thirty ships, thirty steeds, thirty female slaves or maidens for the king of Leinster, and provision for two months for him from Leinster, to wit, a month from Upper Leinster and a month from Lower Leinster; thirty steeds, thirty coats of mail, thirty swords for the chief for Lower Leinster from the king of Cashel. Understand, O reader, that I am not the author of these things, but St. Beinen, as is plain from the Book of Rights.

XVIII.

And after the death of Feidhlimidh, son of Criomhthann, Olchobhar, abbot of Imleach Iobhair, assumed the sovereignty of Cashel; and in that year Maoilseachlainn, king of Meath, won a battle over the Lochlonnaigh at Casan Brige in Meath, where seven hundred of them fell, and Tighearnach defeated them at Doire Dhisirt dha Chonna. It was about this time that Saxolbh, leader of the Lochlonnaigh, was slain by the Ciannachta of Gleann Geimhean, and great slaughter was made of the Lochlonnaigh at Carn Fearadhach and terrible slaughter also at Eas Ruadh.

After this Ath Cliath was first taken by the Lochlonnaigh. It was also about this time that Cormac son of Cuileannan, who was king of Munster seven years, and was at the same time archbishop at Cashel, was born, and the bishop of Tealach, whose name was Exnich, was slain, and the Lochlonnaigh won a battle over the Connaughtmen, in which fell Maolduin, son of Muirgheas, and many Connaughtmen with him; and Brian, son of Faolan, king of Laoighis, died. After that the Lochlonnaigh came with a large fleet on Loch nEachach, and they plundered the districts and churches of the north of Ireland and similarly they burned Fearna and Corcach.

Niall Caille, king of Ireland, went at this time with a numerous host to plunder and spoil Feara Ceall and Dealbhna Eathra; and Murchadh, son of Aodh, king of Connaught, died at this time, also Joseph, bishop of Cluain Uais. It was about this time also that the Lochlonnaigh built a camp on Linn Duachaill from which they plundered the districts of Teathbha. Similarly the Lochlonnaigh built another camp at Duibhlinn from which they plundered Leinster and Ui Neill and their districts and churches to Sliabh Bladhma. And after that they plundered Cluain Eidhneach and Cluain Ioraird and Cluain Mic Nois; and Fearghus, son of Fothach, king of Connaught, died; and Turgesius, chief of the Lochlonnaigh, built a dun and a fortress on Loch Ribh; and they plundered Cluain Mic Nois again, and Cluain Fearta of Breanainn and Tir da Ghlas and Lothra and many other stone fortresses. And after that Gormghall, son of Din Dathaidh, bishop of Lann Leire, died. And Niall Caille, king of Ireland, gave the Lochlonnaigh battle on Magh Iotha wherein many of them fell by him. And it was soon after this that Niall Caille, king of Ireland, was drowned at Callan, as we have said.

The tyrant Turgesius of Norway with his army of Fionnlochlonnaigh held the supremacy of Ireland thirteen years, after he had been harassing the country for seventeen years; and during that time he was oppressing and coercing Ireland, a large fleet having come from Norway to help him; and they put into harbour in the north of Ireland; and they plundered that country and got hostages thence, and they sent boats manned to spoil Loch nEachach and Loch Ribh, as we have said, in accordance with what Columcille prophesied in the stanza already given.

Bearchan of the Prophecy also foretold that a tyrant of the Lochlonnaigh would be king of Ireland, and similarly that every church in Ireland would have an abbot of the Lochlonnaigh. Thus does he speak in the following stanza:

    1. The Gentiles will come over the stuttering sea,
      They will commix with the men of Ireland;
      An abbot of their race will rule each church;
      Of them will be a king of Ireland.

When the nobles of Ireland saw that Turgesius was upsetting the country, and that he had it in his power, and that he was enslaving and tyrannising over it, these nobles assumed a magnanimous courage and a valorous steadfast spirit, and they underwent great hardship and distress in their conflict with these tyrants. Here follow some of the defeats which the Gaels inflicted on them, namely, their defeat by the Cineal Conaill at Eas Ruadh where many of them were slain; and their defeat by the Dal gCais at Ard Breacain; and when Saxolbh, an earl of the Lochlonnaigh with his party was slain by the Ui Colgan; and when Olchobhar, son of Cionaoth, king of Munster, and Lorcan, son of Ceallach, king of Leinster, won the Battle of Sciath Neachtain over them, wherein they slew Earl Tomar, tanist to the king of Lochlonn, together with twelve hundred of the nobles of the Lochlonnaigh. Moreover, the same Olchobhar and the Eoghanacht of Cashel overthrew them near Cashel, where five hundred of them fell at Dun Mhaoile Tuile. Three hundred and sixty of them fell by the Ui Fidhghinnte, and two hundred by the Ciannachta, and twelve hundred at Drom da Chon by Tighearnach, king of Loch Gabhair; and also Maoilseachlainn, son of Maolruanuidh, king of Meath, overthrew them in the Battle of Glaslinn in which seventeen hundred Lochlonnaigh were slain.

Though there were many battles and skirmishes fought between the Gaels and Turgesius with his Lochlonnaigh, still by reason of the numerous fleets and the many hosts that came to his aid from Norway and from other countries in the north of Europe, he conquered the Gaels and reduced them to subjection and to slavery to himself and to his foreigners.

Here is a short account of the slavery of the Gaels under the Lochlonnaigh, and of the rent and tribute imposed on them, to wit, a Lochlonnach king over every cantred in Ireland, and a chief over every district and an abbot over every church, a steward over every townland, and a mercenary or hired soldier over every house, while the householder had not the disposal of as much as a hen of his own property; and were there but one stripper in the house neither the babe one night old nor the sick person would get her milk, but it was kept for the soldier, and if he were not satisfied he took the householder with him to the assembly in pledge for his maintenance. The Lochlonnaigh exacted an ounce of gold each year from every man in Ireland or else the nose from his head. And neither lord nor lady wore a mantle or dress but the cast-off clothes and mantles of the Lochlonnaigh; they were not permitted to give instruction or frequent church—but the Lochlonnaigh were in their churches and in their duns—with no professors or clergy, without books or jewels in the abbey-churches and monasteries through fear of them; without a filé, without a philosopher, without a musician according to the laws of the country; without the daughter of a king or lord or chief wearing silk or embroidery; without the son of a king or a chief learning feats of agility or casting; with no feast or banquet held among friends, but what remained after the foreigners had been sated therefrom.

The severity of the servitude to which the Lochlonnaigh had brought the Gaels was the cause of great trouble to all the men of Ireland; and the remnant of their clergy that survived, and that were wont to hide themselves in woods and in secret places leading pious lives in wretchedness, earnestly prayed God to release them from the tyranny of Turgesius. They fasted also against him, and directed each of the faithful laity who were subject to them to do the same. And God heard their prayer, and put Turgesius in the power of the Gaels as we shall here immediately relate.

While Turgesius thus held oppressive sway, and while the Gaels were submissive to him in unwilling obedience, he built a fortified residence for himself near the duinlios of Maoilseachlainn, son of Maoilruanaidh, king of Meath; and on a certain day when he came to the house of Maoilseachlainn he cast eyes on Maoilseachlainn's daughter, a beautiful marriageable maiden; and aged and self-indulgent as he was, he requested her father to give the maiden to him as his mistress. ‘My lord,’ replied Maoilseachlainn, ‘I am certain that thou wouldst not be content with my daughter as thy wedded wife, but wouldst deem it sufficient to have her for a time. I therefore beseech thee not to ask for her publicly lest she may be baulked of a husband; and as thy fortress happens to be near this lios in which I reside, I will send my daughter privately to meet thee, together with the fifteen most beautiful and loveable maidens in all Meath; and I am certain that when thou shalt see these ladies thou wilt pay neither heed nor attention to my own daughter, so far do they excel her in beauty.’ Turgesius approved of this, and they fixed a certain night on which the maiden with her attendant ladies was to be sent to meet Turgesius to his fortress. About this time there was a gathering and assembly of all the Lochlonnach chiefs in Ireland to meet Turgesius at Ath Cliath, with the view to take counsel as to maintaining and preserving their sway in the country ; and while they were there Turgesius made known to some of the chiefs the agreement he had come to with Maoilseachlainn, and promised women to those of them who would go with him; and fifteen of the most daring and lustful of these chiefs went with him, and they did not rest or tarry till they reached the fortress of Turgesius together with their lord.

As to Maoilseachlainn he sent privately for fifteen of the most daring beardless youths that were in Meath, and directed that they be dressed in women's clothes, and wear a short sword each at the waist, and that they be thus sent disguised as women to accompany his daughter. And when the night came on which she was to be sent to meet Turgesius according to promise, the maiden set out, attended by her ladies, and went close up to the fortress, and sent a private message to Turgesius to inform him that herself and her ladies were near the house for the purpose of paying him a visit; and when he heard this, he directed the chiefs who were with him to go to their rooms, saying that he would send them women as he had promised. Thereupon they piled their arms into one heap on the table which was in the hall, and went to their rooms, each of them occupying a separate bed, waiting for these ladies to be distributed among them.

Now at this time Maoilseachlainn with a body of soldiers was with his daughter, and he directed a number of those youths who were with her disguised as women, the moment Turgesius should lay hands on his daughter for the purpose of detaining her with him, to seize him by force and take him captive, and another party to take possession of the arms that were in the house, and to spring upon the chiefs who were within; and he said that he himself with his body of soldiers would be near the house, and that he would rush into the house at the first cry to help them slay the Lochlannaigh. Thereupon the maiden with her ladies went in by a back door of the house and reached the room of Turgesius; and when they had come into his presence, he glanced at the maiden and her ladies and none of them pleased him but herself, and then he laid hands on her to detain her with him. When the youths who were with her saw this, a party of them seized Turgesius by force and made him captive; the remaining party seized the arms and held them in their possession, and then Maoilseachlainn with his party of soldiers came in, and they sprang on the party of Lochlonnaigh that were in the fortress, and slew them all, both chiefs and underlings except Turgesius alone; and when they had stripped the fortress bare they led Turgesius to the duinlios of Maoilseachlainn where they kept him for a time in captivity.

Now when the Lochlonnaigh who were in Ireland heard that their chiefs were slain, and that Turgesius the tyrant had been captured by Maoilseachlainn, king of Meath, they grew dispirited and discouraged, so that every party of them who were in the interior of the country far from seaports used to escape secretly by night and make for their ships for the purpose of leaving Ireland; and those parties of them that were in the seaports used to fly to their ships to protect themselves from the onslaught of the Gaels who were in pursuit of them; so that the Lochlonnaigh were all banished from Ireland on that occasion except a small remnant of them who remained under the rule of the Gaels. And after they were banished Maoilseachlainn drowned Turgesius in Loch Ainninn, and this deed led to the nobles of Ireland choosing with one accord Maoilseachlainn as high king of Ireland, since the country had been freed by him from the slavery of the Lochlonnaigh.

Buchanan says that Greaghoir, king of Alba, with a numerous host came to plunder Ireland in the year of the Lord 877, and that he slew Brian and Conchubhar, two guardians of the king of Ireland, as the king of Ireland was a child. But this cannot be true; since we do not read in the seanchus that there was ever any king of Ireland, from the time of Slainghe to the Norman Invasion, but a king who obtained sovereignty of Ireland by the choice of the people, by the excellence of his exploits, and by the strength of his hand. And moreover, it was Turgesius the tyrant who was king of Ireland at that time.

XIX.

Maoilseachlainn, son of Maolruanuidh, son of Donnchadh, son of Domhnall, son of Murchadh, son of Diarmaid, son of Airmeadhach Caoch, son of Conall Guithbhinn, son of Suibhne Meann, son of Colman Mor, son of Diarmaid, son of Fearghus Ceirrbheoil, of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland sixteen years. Arog, daughter of Cathal, son of Fiachraidh, king of Feara Cul, was the mother of this Maoilseachlainn.

When the Lochlonnaigh had been banished by Maoilseachlainn, as we have said, and by the nobles of Ireland, the Fionnlochlonnaigh took counsel together in Norway as to how or by what means they might obtain a footing in Ireland in the hope of attaining to the mastery of Ireland once more. The plan they adopted was to get ready three leaders, who were brothers and of the noble blood of Norway, with a view to sending them with a fleet to Ireland on pretence of trading, and with many desirable commodities and many valuable jewels to bestow on and sell to the men of Ireland, in order to secure peace and alliance with them; so that they might thus deceitfully get a hold on the country and harass it once more. The Polycronicon refers to this affair thus: After the death of Turgesius there came from the regions of Norway seeking for peace and on the pretext of trading three brothers, Amhlaoibh, Sitric and Iomhar to this island with their followers, and by the consent of the Irish who were fond of ease they set in order or built three seaports for their own residence, namely, Port Lairge, Ath Cliath and Luimneach. And after that, as the companies who came with them increased, they often made sudden attacks on the natives. {Post obitum Turgesii de Noruaegiae partibus, quasi sub pacis intuitu et mercaturae exercendae praetextu, tres fratres Amelanus, Cyracus et Iuarus cum sua sequela in hanc insulam appulerunt, et de consensu Ibernorum otio deditorum, maritima loca occupantes, tres civitates, viz., Waterfordiam, Dubliniam et Limericum construxerunt; qui tamen numero succrescentes contra indigenas frequenter insultabant.}’’

From these words it is to be inferred that it was by the deceit of these three leaders the Fionnlochlonnaigh from Norway found an opportunity once more of depredating Ireland. And they grew in strength once again in Ireland for two reasons. The first of these reasons was the abundance of help they got from Norway in soldiers and ships time after time; and the second reason was the disagreement and the constant dissension that existed among the Gaels themselves at that time, and in which they mutually spent much of their force. And, moreover, they were accustomed to give free quarters man for man to the Lochlonnaigh, whence came to pass that these obtained sway once more in Ireland, and that they held the Gaels once again in servitude from this time till the death of Brian, as we shall show from the annals of Ireland in the following narrative.

While the Fionnlochlonnaigh were harassing Ireland in this manner a large fleetful of Dubhlochlonnaigh came from Dania or Denmark to Ath Cliath, and they plundered the coast of the country and slew many people; and thereupon the Fionnlochlonnaigh assembled to meet them, and a battle was fought between them at Linn Duachuill where the Fionnlochlonnaigh were defeated and a thousand of them were slain; and the Dubhlochlonnaigh in consequence obtained great sway in Ireland. And soon after this Amhlaoibh, son of the king of Lochloinn, came to Ireland to become chief ruler of the Danes or Dubhlochlonnaigh, and he imposed a rent-tax on a great number of the men of Ireland.

It was about this time that Olchobhar, son of Cionaoth, king of Munster, died, also Flaithnia, bishop of Biorar, and Cormac, bishop of Latrach Briuin, and Niall, son of Giollan, this latter having lived thirty years without food or drink. It was about this time that a great assembly or convention of the men of Ireland was held at Rath Aodha mic Bric under Maoilseachlainn, king of Teamhair, and Etgna, comhorba of Patrick, to make peace between the men of Ireland, and it was there Cearbhall, king of Osruighe, made submission to the comhorba of Patrick.

It was there also that Maolguala, son of Donnghal, king of Munster, and Cearbhall, king of Osruighe, made peace with Leath Cuinn. After this the people of Normandy stoned to death Maolguala, king of Munster. It was about this time that Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, fought the Battle of Drom Damhuighe, wherein he wreaked great slaughter on the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath; and Domhnall, son of Ailpin, king of the Picti, died. Soon after this Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, died.

Aodh Finnliath, son of Niall Caille, son of Aodh Oirndighe, son of Niall Frasach, son of Fearghal, son of Maolduin, son of Maoilfithrigh, son of Aodh Uairiodhnach of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland sixteen years. Gormflaith, daughter of Donnchadh, son of Domhnall, was mother of Aodh Finnliath, and Maolmuire, daughter of Cionaoth, son of Ailpin, king of Alba, his wife, mother of Niall Glundubh.

It was in the reign of Aodh Finnliath that the following events took place, to wit, Conchubhar, son of Donnchadh, half-king of Meath, was slain by Amhlaoibh, son of the king of Lochloinn at Cluain Ioraird. After that this Amhlaoibh went with a numerous host of Lochlonnaigh to Foirthren in Alba, and pillaged and plundered the Picti and carried off hostages from them. It was about this time that Aodh Finnliath, king of Ireland, fought a great battle against the Lochlonnaigh of Loch Feabhail, and took away with him forty heads severed from the bodies of their leaders after he had slain twelve thousand of their number; and he robbed and plundered the fortress, spoiling it both of cattle and treasure. Soon after this Conall, bishop of Cill Scire, died; and the dun of Amhlaoibh, king of Lochloinn, was burned in Cluain Dolcain by the son of Gaoithin and by the son of Ciaran, son of Ronan; and they slew a hundred leaders of the Lochlonnaigh. After that Amhlaoibh plundered and spoiled Ard Macha, and slew a thousand Gaels and took much wealth and a large tribute therefrom. It was about this time that Ceannfaolaidh, son of Moichthighearn, who was thirteen years of age, died, and Donnchadh son of Dubh dha Bhuireann, held the sovereignty of Munster fourteen years; and a battle was fought between the Picti and the Dubhlochlonnaigh in which many of the Picti were slain. After this Rudhruighe, son of Moirmhinn, king of Britain, came to Ireland, fleeing from the Dubhlochlonnaigh, and the relics of St. Columcille were brought from Alba to Ireland to save them from the same people.

It was about this time, according to Cormac son of Cuileannan, that Lorcan son of Lachtna, was king of Thomond; and when the Dal gCais possessed only Thomond, the northern side of the palace of Cashel from the extreme corner to the door belonged to them; and they had twelve cantreds of land to share among them, to wit, from Leim Chon gCulainn to Bealach Mor in Osruighe and from Sliabh Echtghe to Sliabh Eibhlinne, and it was they were in the van of the Munster host when going to meet the enemy, and in the rear when returning from them, as Cormac son of Cuileannan says in this stanza:

    1. They are first marching into the enemy's country,
      They are last when returning,
      Through the greatness of their valour in every adversity,
      This it is that distinguishes the Dal gCais.

Aodh Finnliath, king of Ireland, died at Drom Ionascluinn in the district of Conall; and Tighearnach, son of Muireadhach, bishop of Drom Ionasclainn, died at this time.

Flann Sionna, son of Maoilseachlainn, son of Maolruanuidh, son of Donnchadh, son of Domhnall, son of Murchadh, son of Diarmaid, son of Airmeadhach Caoch, son of Conall Guithbhinn, son of Suibhne Meann of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland thirty-eight years. Lann, daughter of Dunghal, son of Fearghal, king of Osruighe, was the mother of Flann, son of Maoilseachlainn.

It was in the reign of Flann Sionna, king of Ireland, that the following events took place. For this king plundered and wasted all Munster and carried off captives therefrom. It was in his reign too that Domhnall, son of Muireigen was slain by his own companions, and Fiachna, son of Ainbhioth, son of Aodh Roin, who was king of Ulster for one year, and Donnchadh, son of Dubh dha Bhuireann, king of Munster, died. It was about this time that Cill Dara and Cluain Ioraird were plundered by the Lochlonnaigh; and Flonn Sionna, king of Ireland, convened the fair of Taillte; and Dubhlachtna, son of Maolguala, son of Donnghal, who was king of Munster seven years, died; and Sitric, son of Iomhar, was slain by a party from Normandy; and Aidheit, son of Laighneach, who was king of Ulster, was treacherously slain by his own companions; and Ard Macha was wasted by the Lochlonnaigh of Loch Feabhail, and there they seized on Cumuscach, king of Ulster, and Aodh mac Cumuscaigh, his son; and Domhnall, son of Constantin, king of Alba, died.

XX.

It was about this time that Cormac, son of Cuilennan, son of Sealbhach, son of Ailghionan, son of Eochaidh, son of Breasal, son of Aonghus, son of Natfraoch, son of Corc, son of Lughaidh Gaot, son of Oilill Flann Beag, son of Fiachaidh Muilleathan, son of Eoghan Mor, son of Oilill Olom, held the sovereignty of Munster seven years. And great was the prosperity of Ireland while Cormac reigned over Munster. For Ireland was filled with divine favour and worldly prosperity and constant peace in his time, so that cattle were without a herd and flocks without a shepherd during his reign; and cemeteries were protected in his time, and many churches and monasteries and public schools to teach letters, law and seanchus were built in his time; and there was much tilled land, many bees, many beehives, much fasting and prayer and piety of every kind; and many guest houses were being built and many books were being written in his time. And every good deed he asked others to do he did himself first, as almsgiving, mercy, prayer, Mass and every other such good action. And, moreover, he was fortunate in this that the party of Lochlonnaigh who were in Ireland for purposes of plunder abandoned the country while he reigned over Munster.

Now it happened that Cormac son of Cuileannan, was dwelling at Cashel on the approach of Easter, and he made proclamation throughout the Eoghanachts asking them to send to him to Cashel food and provisions with a view to the noble festival, and they refused him. But when the Dal gCais heard this they sent abundance of food and provisions to Cormac so that he was grateful to them. Cormac again sent messengers to the race of Eoghan asking them to send him jewels and valuables with a view to bestowing them on strangers since they did not send him food, but what the race of Eoghan did was to send him the worst arms and apparel they had, and hence he was displeased with them. Now when the Dal gCais heard this they sent him the choicest arms and apparel and jewels to make gifts of, and he was grateful to them and gave them his blessing, as he himself says in this stanza:

    1. May our sincerest wish be given them,
      To the powerful race of Tal,
      Fair sovereignty enduring for ever,
      Heroism, honour, comeliness, cleric virtues.

We read in the seanchus that there were forty kings on the throne of Munster from the time of Aonghus, son of Natfraoch, to Mathghamhain, son of Cinneide, and that during that time the Dal gCais possessed only Thomond (except Lorcan, who reigned a year and a half after Cormac son of Cuileannan, according to O Dubhagain, and died at the end of that time), namely, from Slighe Dhala which is called Bealach Mor Osruighe to Leim Chon gCulainn in the west of Corca Baiscinn; and it was the same Dal gCais who used to serve in the wars for the king of Cashel against Leinster and Leath Cuinn. Hence some poet says in this stanza:

    1. It is the right of the host of the race of Lughaidh
      To lead in battle the Munster hosts,
      And to be in the rear afterwards,
      Coming from proud unknown lands.

Now when Cormac son of Cuileannan, had been ten years on the throne of Munster in peace and prosperity, as we have said, he was egged on by some of the nobles of Munster, and in particular by Flaithbheartach, son of Ionmhainen, abbot of Inis Cathach, who was of the royal blood, to exact head tribute from the province of Leinster since it belonged to Leath Mogha. Accordingly he assembled and brought together the Munster forces, and when their nobles had come together they resolved to go and demand head tribute from the Leinstermen by right of the partition which was made between Mogh Nuadhat and Conn. But Cormac was reluctant to go on this expedition as he had a foreboding that he was to fall in the adventure. Still he consented to go, and just before he set out he left legacies for the sake of his soul to the principal churches of Ireland, to wit, an ounce of silver and an ounce of gold and his trappings and his steed to Drom Abhrad, that is Ard Fionain. A chalice of gold and silver and a satin chasuble to Lis Mor; a chalice of gold and silver and four ounces of gold and a hundred ounces of silver to Cashel; three ounces of gold and a missal to Imleach Iobhair; an ounce of gold and an ounce of silver to Gleann da Loch; trappings and a steed, an ounce of gold, and a satin cope to Cill Dara ; twenty-four ounces of silver and of gold to Ard Macha; three ounces of gold to Inis Cathaigh; three ounces of gold and a satin chasuble to Mungairid and the blessing of Cormac.

High, indeed, was the testimony Cormac bore to the community of Mungairid, as we read in the poem which begins: O servant bind our provisions, in which he gives the number of the monks who were in the community serving the six temples that were in the church. The cathair of Neasan, the Deacon, that church is called. Here is the number of the monks that were in it, to wit, five hundred learned monks for preaching, six hundred psalm-singers to attend choir, and four hundred aged men for contemplation.

As to Cormac when he was about to set out for Leinster he sent for Lorcan, son of Lochtna, king of Dal gCas, and when he reached the palace at Cashel, Cormac bade him welcome, and he made it known to the nobles of the race of Eoghan who were with him that it was Lorcan who had the true title to the kingdom of Munster after him according to the will of Oilill Olom, by which it was ordained that the sovereignty of Munster should each alternate generation be held by the race of Fiachaidh Muilleathan and the race of Cormac Cas. But the wish of Cormac was not given effect to in this matter.

Now as to Cormac when he and Flaithbheartach, son of Ionmhainen, had got together a large army of Munstermen, they proceeded to Leinster to demand hostages or rent for the king of Munster, as the people of Leinster belonged to Leath Mogha. While the Munster host were in one camp before setting out on that expedition, Flaithbheartach, son of Ionmhainen, abbot of Inis Cathaigh, went on his horse through the laneway of the camp, and his horse fell under him into a deep trench and that was an ill-omen for him. This caused a large number of his followers and of the entire host to abandon this march, as they regarded the holy man's fall as a bad omen before their setting out on an expedition.

Now noble envoys from the Leinstermen and from Cearbhall, son of Muireigen, came to interview Cormac first, and brought him an offer of peace from the Leinstermen, to wit, that there should be general peace in Ireland until the coming Bealltaine, for a fortnight of autumn was just then over, and hostages were to be given into the hands of Maonach, abbot of Disirt Diarmada, who was a holy, wise, pious man, and the Leinstermen were to give Cormac and Flaithbheartach a large amount of valuables and wealth in consideration of that peace. Cormac was well pleased to make this peace, and went and made known to Flaithbheartach that there had come to him envoys from the king of Leinster asking for peace until the coming Bealltaine, and offering both of them valuables and wealth from the Leinstermen if they returned to Munster in peace. When Flaithbheartach heard this he became greatly enraged and said: ‘From thy feeble courage it is very easy to judge how miserable thy mind and spirit,’ and he poured out much abuse and insult on Cormac on that occasion.

Cormac answered him thus: ‘I know well,’ said he, ‘what will come of this, to wit, battle will be given to the Leinstermen and I shall be slain, and it is likely that thy death will also come of it.’ And when Cormac had said these words he went into his own tent troubled and sad, and when he sat down a vessel of apples was brought to him and he began to distribute them among his people, saying: ‘My beloved people,’ said he, ‘I shall not distribute apples among you from this time forth for ever.’ ‘O beloved lord,’ said his people, ‘thou hast made us sad and sorrowful, and thou has often forboded ill for thyself.’ ‘How is this, O people of my heart,’ said Cormac, ‘for it is no great wonder that even though I should not give you apples with my own hand there will be some one else with me to give them to you.’ After this Cormac ordered that a guard be set round him, and that the pious man Maonach, namely the comhorba of Comhghall, be brought to him so that he might make his confession and his will in his presence; and he partook of the Body of Christ in his presence, and he renounced the world before Maonach, for Cormac felt sure that he himself would be slain in that battle, still he did not like his people to know this.

Now he ordered that his body be taken to Cluain Uama, if it could be taken there with general convenience, and if not that it be taken to the churchyard of Diarmaid, son of Aodh Roin, that is Disirt Diarmada where he was a student for a long time. However, he preferred to be buried at Cluain Uama with the son of Leinin. But Maonach preferred he should be buried at Disirt Diarmada where there was a community of the monks of Comhghall, and Maonach was then Comhghall's comhorba, and he was a pious wise man, and he endured great hardship and labour in his endeavour to arrange peace between the Leinstermen and the king of Munster on that occasion.

Now many Munstermen deserted the expedition without leave when they heard that Flann, son of Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, was in the camp of the Leinstermen with a numerous host of infantry and cavalry. Thereupon Maonach said: ‘Good people of Munster you should be acting wisely in giving the good hostages offered you into the hands of virtuous people until Bealltaine, to wit, the son of Cearbhall, king of Leinster, and the son of the king of Osruighe.’ All the Munstermen replied with one voice that it was Flaithbheartach, son of Ionmhainen, who forced them to go to Leinster.

After this contention the Munstermen proceeded eastward over Sliabh Mairge to Droichead Leithghlinne. Now Tiobraide the comhorba of Ailbhe and a large party of clerics rested at Leithghlinn as well as the camp-followers and the baggage horses. After this the Munstermen sounded their trumpets and gave the alarm of battle and proceeded to Magh nAilbhe. They rested there in the bosom of a wood and fastness awaiting the enemy. The Munstermen divided themselves into three equal battalions with Flaithbheartach, son of Ionmhainen, and Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, king of Osruighe, in command of the first battalion, Cormac, son of Cuileannan, king of Munster, in command of the second battalion, and Cormac, son of Mothla, king of the Deise, and a party of Munster nobles in command of the third battalion. Now in this array they reached Magh nAilbhe, and they were complaining of the multitude of the enemy and of the smallness of their own host. For authors write that the Leinstermen had a host four times as numerous as the Munstermen. Pitiful indeed was the cry from this battle as the learned relate, that is, the cry of the Munstermen who were being slain, and the cry of the Leinstermen who were exulting over that slaughter.

Now the sudden defeat of the Munstermen was owing to two causes, namely, Ceileachair, kinsman of Ceann Gheagain, one time king of Munster, mounted his horse, and when he had mounted he said: ‘O freemen of Munster,’ said he, ‘fly this awful battle and leave the clerics themselves to fight, as they accepted no other offer but to give battle to the Leinstermen.’ With that Ceileachair and a multitude with him quitted the battlefield. Another cause of the defeat of the Munstermen was that when Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, saw his people being smitten stoutly in the battle he suddenly mounted his horse and said to his followers: ‘Mount your horses,’ said he, ‘and dismiss those that are opposed to you,’ and though he said this it was not to fighting he referred, but to flight. It followed from these two causes that there was general rout of the men of Munster. Alas, great was the slaughter throughout Magh nAilbhe on that occasion. For clerics were no more spared than laics, but were slain equally with them on either side; and when they spared a cleric or a laic, it was not through mercy but through avarice they did so, in the hope of getting ransom-money on their account.

Cormac son of Cuileannan went to the forefront of the leading battalion. But his horse jumped into a drain under him and he got unhorsed, and a party of his followers who were fleeing from the battle saw him and came to his aid and placed him on his horse. Then did Cormac notice a freeborn foster-son of his own, whose name was Aodh, a man learned in wisdom, in law, in history and in Latin, and king Cormac spoke to him thus: ‘Beloved son,’ said he, ‘do not stay with me, but escape as best thou canst; and I told thee that I should be slain in this battle.’ Cormac advanced, and much blood of men and steeds lay along his path, and the hind legs of the horse under him slipped through the slipperiness of the way which was marked with blood. Thereupon the horse fell backwards and Cormac fell under it and his neck and back were together broken in that fall; and as he fell he said: ‘Into Thy hands, O Lord,’ etc. He died on the spot, and the unruly folk came and assailed him with javelins and his head was cut off.

Dr. Hanmer says in his chronicle that it was by the Lochlonnaigh that Cormac son of Cuileannan, and Cearbhall son of Muireigen, king of Leinster, fell in the year of the Lord 905. But this statement of Hanmer's is false, for Cearbhall did not fall on this occasion, and it was not the Lochlonnaigh who fought the battle but Flann Sionna, king of Ireland, as is evident from the historic tract called the Battle of Bealach Mughna, in which battle the son of Cuilleanna fell.

Now in the very beginning of this battle Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, king of Osruighe, and his son were slain. Many were the good clerics, the kings, the chiefs and the warriors that were slain in this battle. There were slain there Foghartach son of Suibhne, king of Ciarraidhe, and Oilill son of Eoghan, a young prudent noble, and Colman, abbot of Ceann Eiteach, chief judicial ollamh of Ireland, and a large crowd with them. The following are the nobles who fell there, namely, Cormac, king of the Deise, Dubhgan, king of Fear Maighe, Ceannfaolaidh, king of Ui Conaill, Conn of Adhar, Aineislis of Ui Toirrdhealbhaigh, Eidhion king of Eidhne, who had been banished to Munster, Maolmuaidh, Madagan, Dubh dha Bhuireann, Conall, Fearadhach, Aodh king of Ui Liathain, and Domhnall king of Dun Cearmna. And those who won the victory over the Munstermen are Flann, son of Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, and Cearbhall, son of Muireigen, king of Leinster, and Tadhg, son of Faolan, king of Ui Cinnselaigh, and Teimheanain, king of Ui Deaghaidh, Ceallach and Lorcan two kings of the Cineals, and Inneirghe, son of Duibhghiolla, king of Ui Drona, Follamhain son of Oilill, king of Fothorta Feadha, Tuathal son of Ughaire, king of Ui Muireadhaigh, Odhran son of Cinneide, king of Laoighis, Maolcallann son of Fearghal, king of the Forthuath, and Cleircen, king of Ui Bairrche.

XXI.

After this Flann Sionna, king of Ireland, came with a large royal host of cavalry to place Diarmaid, son of Cearbhall, on the throne of Osruighe in the room of his brother Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, who reigned in Osruighe before him and who fell in this battle as he was helping Cormac, to whom as king of Leath Mogha he was subject as to the payment to him of tribute. It was then that a party came to Flann Sionna, king of Ireland, bringing with them the head of Cormac, son of Cuileannan, and they said to Flann: ‘Life and health be thine, O slaughtering powerful king; behold we have the head of Cormac, king of Munster, for thee, and according to the custom of the other kings lift thy thigh and put the head under it and press it beneath thy thigh. For it was the custom of the kings that preceded thee, when they had slain a king in battle to cut off his head and to press it beneath their thighs.’ But instead of thanking this party he reproached them severely for this deed, and said that it was a pity to behead the holy bishop and added that he would not press it; and Flann took the head in his hand and kissed it, and thrice turned round in full circle with the blessed head of the holy bishop.

And then the head was reverently carried from him to the body, at which was Maonach, son of Siadhal, comhorba of Comhghall, and he took the body of Cormac to Disirt Diarmada, and it was there buried with honour.

What heart but must rue this deed, the slaying and hewing of the holy man, the wisest of the men of Ireland in his time, a man learned in Irish and in Latin, and a most virtuous chaste, pure, prayerful, pious archbishop, leader in teaching in true wisdom and good morals and high king of the two provinces of Munster!

And Flann Sionna, king of Ireland, returned, having left Diarmaid son of Cearbhall on the throne of Osruighe, and having made peace between himself and his kinsmen. The Leinstermen similarly returned in the flush of victory. After this Cearbhall son of Muireigen, king of Leinster, proceeded on his way to Cill Dara bringing with him in charge a large body of Munstermen and with them Flaithbheartach, son of Ionmhainen. Then Flaithbheartach was brought into Cill Dara, and the Leinster clergy fell to reproaching him greatly, for they knew well that it was through his fault the battle was fought.

But on the death of Cearbhall, king of Leinster, Flaithbheartach was set free; and a year after Muireann banchomhorba of Brighid accompanied him out of the town and sent a large party of Leinster clergy to escort him till he reached Magh nAirbh, and when he had thus arrived in Munster he went into his own monastery to Inis Cathaigh, and there he passed some time in virtue and devotion, and came out of Inis Cathaigh again to assume the sovereignty of Munster after the death of Dubh Lachtna, son of Maolguala, who was king of Munster seven years after Cormac; and he was for some years after that king of Munster, as is stated in the old book of the Annals of Cluain Eidhneach Fionntain in Laoighis which gives an account of the Battle of Bealach Mughna, as we read in the historic poem which Dallan, the ollamh of Cearbhall, king of Munster, composed in which he gives an abridged summary of this battle, and in which he enumerates the nobles and gives the numbers of the hosts that fell therein. But I shall set down here only the first stanza of the poem, since I have mentioned the nobles by name above. Here is the stanza:

    1. Cormac, of Feimhean, Foghartach,
      Colman, Ceallach of hard combats,
      With six thousand, fell
      In the Battle of proud Bealach Mughna.

After this Flann Sionna, king of Ireland, died.

Niall Glundubh, son of Aodh Finnleith, son of Niall Caille, son of Aodh Oirndighe, son of Niall Frasach, son of Fearghal, son of Maolduin, son of Maoilfrithrigh, son of Aodh Uairiodhnach of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland three years. He renewed the fair of Taillte. It was this Niall who went with a force of Gaels to give battle to the Lochlonnaigh of Loch da Chaoch in Ulster, and many Lochlonnaigh and Gaels were slain in that battle. It was also in the reign of Niall that the Battle of Ceann Fuaid was won over the Leinstermen by Iomhar, a Lochlonnach chief, wherein fell six hundred Leinstermen under Maolmordha, son of Muireigen, king of Iarthar Lithfe, under Ughaire son of Oilill, under Mughron son of Cinneide, king of the Three Comanns and of Laoighis, and under many other nobles not mentioned here.

It was about this time that Oitir, a Lochlonnach chief, with a numerous host went from Loch da Chaoch to Alba, and Caus, son of Aodh, gave them battle, wherein Oitir and many Lochlonnaigh fell. It was in the reign of Niall Glundubh that a great fleet of Lochlonnaigh came to Ireland together with Sitric and the children of Iomhar, and they seized on the town of Ath Cliath in spite of the men of Ireland.

Niall Glundubh, king of Ireland, assembled the main host of Leath Cuinn and gave battle to the Lochlonnaigh at Ath Cliath, wherein he himself was slain together with Conchubhar, son of Maoilseachlainn, royal heir to the sovereignty of Ireland, and Aodh, son of Eochagan, king of Ulster, and Maoilmithidh, son of Flannagan, king of Breagha, Maolcraoibhe O Duibhshionnaigh, king of Oirghiall, and many other leaders and men as well.

Donnchadh, son of Flann Sionna, son of Maoilseachlainn, son of Maolruanuidh, son of Donnchadh, son of Domhnall, son of Murchadh, son of Diarmaid, son of Airmeadhach Caoch, son of Conall Guithbhinn, son of Suibhne Meann of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland twenty years. Gormfhlaith, daughter of Flann, son of Conaing, was the mother of this Donnchadh, and his wife was Sadhbh, daughter of Donnchadh, son of Ceallach, king of Osruighe. And according to the book of Ard Macha this Donnchadh, son of Flann, king of Ireland, went with a large party to build a wall or fence round Saighir Chiarain by the direction of his wife, namely, Sadhbh, daughter of Donnchadh, son of Ceallach; for she felt envious at there being a wall or fence round every principal church in Ireland, while her own church, that is Saighir, was without a wall; for the burying place of the kings of Osruighe was at Saighir Chiarain at that time. Accordingly the men of Meath came to Donnchadh's mound beside Saighir to the west, and they set themselves to build the fence round the church day by day; and at this time the body of Donnchadh, son of Ceallach, king of Osruighe, was brought to Saighir to be buried; and after it was buried, when the darkness of night had set in, nine hairy jet-black crosans came upon the grave and set to choir-chanting as crosans are wont to do ever since, and their eyes and their teeth were whiter than snow, and all their other limbs blacker than blacksmith's coal.

They had come, it seems, bringing with them a lay for the king of Osruighe. And all who saw them grew sick a day and a night at the sight. Here is the lay:

    1. The people of Donnchadha Mor son of Ceallach,
      A proud quarterage,
      Melodious bands who are calling out
      Are we when on a hosting:

    1. Hosts hunting, full plains,
      Houses for drinking,
      Fair young women, hospitable princes,
      Great nobles;

    1. The shout of his companies and his troops,
      The quarterage of a good host;
      Ranks of skirmishers in the summer sun,
      Drinking cups, feast-shouts;

    1. Harps and pipes in harmony.
      Filés of Faibhle
      With a fair new poem they used to come
      To the gracious king of Raighne;

    1. Dod dor dod dan, O son of the king of Raighne,
      With prosperity,
      Where are the goblets where the friendship
      That thy father had?

    1. May a pang seized us for the man
      Whom all amused,
      Excellent the course on which he was
      In the fair world;

    1. Baptais baptain on his soul
      Since it is heard,
      Great his reward after going to the other world,
      We are his people.

Now this band used to keep chanting this lay from nightfall till morning every night over the grave of Donnchadh, so that a doubt arose in the minds of clergy and laity, for they were surprised that demons should be openly attending the body of that most virtuous king. Indeed among the pious practices of the king were frequent confession and the receiving of the Body of Christ and fervent prayers; and among his exercises of holy zeal was to send food and provisions to be given to God's poor in each principal church in Osruighe on each of the apostles' feasts. Moreover, he used to place an orphan or a poor man to be maintained for God's sake in every household throughout Osruighe, and had besides three purses or three leather bags, to wit, a bag in which each person of the household put a tithe of the food he ate, and a bag in which each put his Michael's portion, and a third bag in which a portion of beeswax was put, which was at the disposal of the housewife to dispense to the poor who had got no share of the tithes or of the Michael's portion.

As to the clerics, they fasted and prayed for three days that it might be made known to them why the demons attended the king's body; and an angel of God appeared in a vision to a servant of God of the race of Fiachaidh son of Niall, who was in that assembly. ‘Ye have done well in keeping that fast,’ said the angel, ‘now these are nine of the company of Ui Coingheoidh, and this is the third time they have come to Ireland from hell; and since they could not find an occasion against this king during his life, they are causing a disturbance over his body after his death; and do ye have Mass said and water blessed to-morrow,’ continued the angel, ‘and let it be sprinkled on the grave and throughout all the churchyard, and all the demons will go away.’

This was done and the company of Ui Coingheoidh appeared in the air above, in the form of jet black birds, and they did not venture to light on the churchyard ground because of its having been blessed; and they said that the fasting and the bleesing of the grave by the clergy were necessary, ‘for we would be after his body on earth since we have not power over his soul in heaven’. And thereupon they went out of sight of all and they did not see them ever since. It was about this time that the crosan Fionn O Cionga and Mac Rionntach O Connorain lived, and it was they who learned by rote the above mentioned lay from the company of Ui Coinghaoidh while they were chanting it above the grave of Donnchadh, son of Ceallach, king of Osruighe, and the two referred to practised crosantacht as an art until death.

XXII.

It was in the reign of Donnchadh son of Flann Sionna, king of Ireland, that the following events took place. For it was in the beginning of his reign that Ceallachan, son of Buadhachan, who is called Ceallachan of Cashel held the sovereignty of the two provinces of Munster ten years. Now Cinneide, son of Lorcan, came to Gleannamhain to an assembly of the nobles of Munster before Ceallachan was inaugurated, and Cinneide sought to come between Ceallachan and the sovereignty of Munster. But Ceallan's mother came from Cashel, for it was there she dwelt with her tutor, Patrick's comhorba, and coming into the assembly she asked Cinneide to remember the agreement come to between Fiachaidh Muilleathan and Cormac Cas that the descendants of both should alternately inherit Munster, and this is expressed by this stanza on the woman's words:

    1. Remember, O pleasant Cinneide,
      The agreement of Fiachaidh and Cormac Cas!
      How they left Munster to be shared
      Justly among their fair offspring.

And as a result of the woman's discourse Cinneide left the sovereignty of Munster to Ceallachan.

After this the Lochlonnaigh seized on Ceallachan by treachery, and the siol Eoghain and the Dal gCas rescued him in spite of them. But when Ceallachan and the Munster nobles had defeated the Lochlonnaigh in many battles and had driven them out of Munster, Sitric, son of Turgesius, who was their leader, hit upon the plan of arranging a match with Ceallachan, to wit, to give him his own sister Beibhionn, daughter of Turgesius, to wife, and to allow him to possess free the two provinces of Munster, without retribution or claim respecting them on the part of the Lochlonnaigh; in order that when Ceallachan should go under his own protection to marry his sister, himself and all the Munster nobles who were with him might be slain; and he communicated the secret of this plot to Donnchadh, son of Flann, king of Tara, who was at enmity with Ceallachan through his not having paid him the rent for Munster, and hence he consented to Sitric's carrying out his treacherous design on Ceallachan and the Munster nobles. Thereupon Sitric sent envoys to Ceallachan to give tidings of the match, and when they came into his presence, what he proposed to do was to take a large host with him when going to marry the lady. ‘That is not right,’ said Cinneide, son of Lorcan, ‘for it is not right to leave Munster without defence; and what thou shouldst do is leave a force to hold Munster and to take four score lords' sons with thee on going to marry the lady.’

And this was the counsel they adopted. And as Ceallachan was going on this journey; the night before he arrived in Ath Cliath, Mor, daughter of Aodh, son of Eochaidh, daughter of the king of Inis Fionnghall, wife of Sitric, asked why he was making a match with Ceallachan, seeing he had slain so many Lochlonnach nobles. ‘It is not for his good this match is arranged by me,’ he answered, ‘but with a view to practising treachery against him.’

At these words the lady started, as she had been long secretly in love with Ceallachan from the time she saw him at Port Lairge; and she rose early the next morning and went secretly along the path on which she thought Ceallachan was coming; and when he came up to her she took him aside and informed him of the plot which Sitric was hatching against him in order to kill him; and when Ceallachan thought of returning he was unable to do so, as the fields on either side of the road were full of companies of Lochlonniagh ambushed for the purpose of capturing him. As he made an effort to return they sprang upon him from all sides, and a body of nobles who were with him were slain, and these in their turn slew a number of the Lochlonnaigh. But the bulk of the host bore down on Ceallachan, and there captured himself and Donn Cuan, son of Cinneide, and they were taken to Ath Cliath as prisoners, and thence to Ard Macha, where nine Lochlonnach earls with their detachments detained them.

As to the company of Munster nobles who escaped from this conflict, they proceeded to Munster and told the news to Cinneide, who thereupon got ready two hosts to go in quest of Ceallachan, that is, a land force and a sea force, and he made Donnchadh, son of Caomh, king of the two Fearmaighes, leader of the land force, and Cinneide proceeded to encourage him, telling him that eleven of his ancestors were kings of Munster, to wit, Airtre, Cathal son of Fionghaine, Fionghaine son of Cathal, Cu gan Mhathair, Cathal who was called Ceann Geagain, Aodh, Flann Cathrach, Cairbre, Criomhthann, Eochaidh, and Aonghus son of Natfraoch. Besides, Cinneide sent ten hundred of the Dal gCais along with him with three leaders over them, to wit, Coscrach, Longargan and Conghalach, as says the poem: Let twenty hundred go northwards.

Here is the stanza of this poem which quotes the words of Cinneide:

    1. Let Coscrach, of the battles, go there,
      And Longargan, the lovable,
      Let Conghalach, from the lake, go;
      I mean my three brothers.

Moreover, Cinneide sent thither five hundred more of the Dal gCais with Sioda, son of Sioda of the clann Cuilein, and five hundred more of the Dal gCais with Deaghaidh, son of Domhnall, besides the fighting men that went thither from the other free-born tribes of Munster. The second great force he sent by sea with Failbhe Fionn, king of Desmond, as their leader.

As to the land-force they proceeded from Munster to Connaught; and they sent skirmishers to Muaidh and to Iorrus and to Umhall to bring cattle preys to the Munster camp, and the camp were not long waiting for the return of the skirmishers when they saw a host in good array approach them, and their number was ten hundred, and a single youthful warrior at their head; and when they came up, Donnchadh, son of Caomh, asked what force was that. ‘A body of Munstermen,’ he replied, ‘to wit, the Gaileanga and the Luighne of the race of Tadhg son of Cian, son of Oilill Olom, and the men of Dealbhna, of the race of Dealbhaoth, son of Cas, son of Conall Eachluaith, who are giving you a helping hand through brotherly sympathy in opposing the foreigners and in rescuing Ceallachan from them. And there are three valiant leaders at the head of this force, to wit, Aodh, son of Dualghus, having all the Gaileanga under him, Diarmaid, son of Fionnachta, having the Luighnigh under him, and Donnchadh, son of Maoldomhnaigh, at the head of the men of Dealbhna’; and as a testimony of this is the historical poem which begins with this stanza:

    1. The clanna Cein are there,
      And the Dealbhaoith all together
      Coming to the hosting,
      And they will fight on your side.

Now this host was thus constituted. Five hundred of them had swords and shields, and five hundred were archers. The Munster host and this force who had come to help them proceeded thence to Tir Chonaill and they spoiled the country. Muircheartach, son of Arnaladh, came to Donnchadh son of Caomh, and asked him to restore the cattle preys with good will; and Donnchadh replied that he would only give him what remained of the preys after the hosts had been satisfied. Upon this Muircheartach left the host and sent envoys secretly to the sons of Turgesius to Ard Macha informing them that the Munster host were in quest of Ceallachan and intended to rescue him.

As to the sons of Turgesius, they set out from Ard Macha, nine earls with their host of Lochlonnaigh, and Ceallachan and Donn Cuan with them as prisoners. And the Munster host proceeded to Ard Macha and slew all that came in their way of the Lochlonnaigh, and when on the next day they heard that Sitric and his host had gone to Dun Dealgan with Ceallachan they set out in pursuit of them, and when Sitric observed them coming near the town he himself and his host betook themselves to their ships, having Ceallachan and Donn Cuan with them, and the Munster host came on the verge of the strand in front of them and held a parley with the Lochlonnaigh. And thereupon they saw a large fleet approach them in the harbour, and the Munstermen knew that it was Failbhe Fionn and his fleet that were there.

Failbhe and his fleet proceeded by direct route to meet the Lochlonnaigh, and he made an attack on the ships in which were Sitric and Tor and Maghnus, and he boarded Sitric's ship, having a sword in either hand, and set to cutting the ropes that bound Ceallachan to the mast, with the sword that was in his left hand, and set Ceallachan free, and let him down on the ship's deck, and then gave Ceallachan the sword he held in his left hand. Ceallachan went from Sitric's ship to that of Failbhe; and Failbhe continued to hew down the Lochlonnaigh until they overpowering him, slew him and cut off his head. Fianghal, a leader of his followers, took his place in the conflict, and seizing Sitric by the breast by force, cast both of them overboard, and they went to the bottom and thus were drowned.

Seaghdha and Conall, two other leaders, came on and seized Sitric's two brothers, to wit, Tor and Maghnus, and threw them overboard, so that the four were drowned in that manner. And in like manner acted every other company of the Gaels; they sprang on the Lochlonnaigh and broke them up, made gaps through them, slew them, and threw them into disorder, so that there escaped from them only a few who were saved by the swiftness of their ships, and they went on land with Ceallachan who had thus been rescued from Lochlonnach captivity by the valour and prowess of the Munstermen; and thence they proceeded to Munster with Ceallachan, and he resumed the government of his own country.

And as they were setting out from Ath Cliath for Munster, Murchadh son of Flann, king of Leinster, sought to give them battle for having slain so many Lochlonnaigh in rescuing Ceallachan from them. But when they saw how brave and valiant the Munstermen were, they allowed them to pass without giving them battle.

XXIII.

But when Ceallachan returned to Munster he considered how severely the Lochlonnaigh oppressed Munster, and he himself and the nobles of Munster resolved to attack them with a view to banishing them; and they first made a sudden attack on Luimneach, and Ceallachan and his host slew five hundred of them and took away hostages from them. After this he plundered Corcach and brought hostages and treasures therefrom. He also plundered Cashel, and three hundred Lochlonnaigh were slain there. Thence he went to Port Lairge and took possession of the town and plundered it, and he inflicted a severe defeat on Sitric, son of Iomhar, and slew five hundred of his people; and Sitric himself took flight in his fleet; and Ceallachan returned to Domhnall O Faolain, king of the Deise, and gave him his own sister Gormfhlaith, daughter of Baudhachan, to wife. Soon after that Ceallachan died, and after his death Feargraidh, son of Ailghionan, son of Donnghal, held the sovereignty of Munster till his own tribe slew him by treachery. After this Mathghamhain, son of Cinneide, held the sovereignty of Munster twelve years, and in his time Echthighearn, son of Cinneide, was chief of Thomond.

It was Mathghamhain, son of Cinneide, king of Munster, and his brother Brian, son of Cinneide, who was then a stripling, who won the Battle of Sulchoid over the Lochlonnaigh wherein Teitill Treinmhileadh Ruamonn and Bearnard Muiris of Luimneach and Torolbh and twelve hundred Lochlonnaigh were slain, and Mathghamhain and Brian and the Dal gCais pursued them as they retreated in through the streets of Luimneach, and many of them were slain in the streets and in the houses, and they gave up much gold and silver, valuables and goods; and also their duns and fortresses were burned and thrown down. Soon after this Donnabhan seized on Mathghamhain by treachery in his own house and gave him over to the son of Bran and to the foreigners in violation of the protection of Colam, son of Ciaragan, the comhorba of Bairre; and the son of Bran, slew Mathghamhain in violation of the saint's protection.

It was in the time of Donnchadh, son of Flonn Sionna, king of Ireland, of whom we are treating, that the following events took place, to wit, the death of Ciaran, bishop of Tuilen, and the going of this Donnchadh to plunder and spoil Connaught. However, many of his followers were slain in Duibhthir Atha Luain, where Cionaoth, son of Conchubhar, king of Ui Failghe fell. It was about this time that Cluain mic Nois was plundered by the Lochlonnaigh, and they went thence on Lough Ribh and plundered the country on either side of it. The Lochlonnaigh also plundered and spoiled Eininse, and two hundred Gaels were slain there. After this twelve hundred Lochlonnaigh were drowned in Lough Rudhruighe, and the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath seized on Faolan, son of Muireadhach, king of Leinster, and his children; and Dun Sobhairce was plundered by the Lochlonnaigh of Port Lairge. Soon after this the Ultonians made great slaughter on the Lochlonnaigh in which eight hundred of them, together with three of their leaders, to wit, Albdan, Aufer and Roilt, fell by Muircheartach, son of Niall.

About this time there was a large trading business carried on with Ireland when the Lochlonnach earl Oilfinn came with the Lochlonnach forces of Luimneach and Connaught to the fair of Ros Cre on the feast of Peter and Paul; and the people at the fair stood up against them, and three or four thousand Lochlonnaigh were slain there, and the earl himself was slain with them, according to Finghin Mac Carrthaigh in the booklet which he has written giving a brief account of Irish affairs from the beginning to this time. At this period Tadhg, son of Cathal, was king of Connaught twenty years; and Sitric, son of Iomhar, king of the Fionnlochlonnaigh and the Dubhlochlonnaigh, died. About this time the Connaughtmen wrought great slaughter on the Lochlonnaigh of Loch Oirbsean; and Conaing, son of Niall, wrought dreadful slaughter on the Lochlonnaigh of Loch nEeachach wherein two hundred of them fell. After this a party of Lochlonnaigh came on Loch Eirne and they plundered churches and districts; and Gothfraidh, chief of Loch Cuan, plundered Ard Macha; Cill Chuilinn was plundered by Amhlaoibh, son of Gothfraidh, and he took thence ten hundred prisoners. Oileach Neid was plundered by the Lochlonnaigh, and Muircheartach, son of Niall, was captured there, but God set him free by a miracle. Soon after this Aralt, son of Iomhar, chief of the Lochlonnaigh of Luimneach, was slain by the Connaughtmen; and Amhlaoibh, son of Gothfraidh, king of the Fionnlochlonnaigh and of the Dubhlochlonnaigh, died, and Lorcan, son of Faolan, king of Leinster, was slain by the men of Normandy. It was at this time that the son of the prince of Wales, whose name was Rodoricus, came to plunder Ireland; and he was slain by the Irish according to Hanmer in the year of the Lord 966. It was about this time that Ath Cliath was plundered by Conghal, son of Maoilmithidh, and one hundred and forty Lochlonnaigh were there slain, and their valuables and their goods were taken from them. After this Donnchadh, son of Flann Sionna, king of Ireland, died.

Conghalach, son of Maoilmithidh, son of Flanagan, son of Ceallach, son of Conaing, son of Conghal, son of Aodh Slaine, of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland ten years. Muire, daughter of Cionaoth, son of Ailpin, king of Alba, was the mother of this Conghalach. It was in his reign the following events took place. For it was then that Etimonn, king of Sacsa, and Blathchuire, son of Iomhar, king of Normandy, died; and Conghalach, son of Maoilmithidh, king of Ireland, fought the battle of Muine Brogain against the Lochlonnaigh where seven thousand of them fell, as well as many Gaels on the other side.

The fourth year of the reign of this Conghalach, son of Maoilmithidh, Brian Boroimhe, son of Cinneide, assumed the sovereignty of Munster; and the second year after he had become king of Munster he gave notice to Maolmhuaidh, son of Bran, king of Ui nEachach, that he would give him battle at Bealach Leachta to avenge his brother Mathghamhain who was treacherously slain by the followers of the son of Bran. The son of Bran assembled a great host of foreigners and of Gaels; so that he had one thousand four hundred Lochlonnaigh and a large battalion of Gaels. Still Brian and the Dal gCais defeated them, so that many of them, of whom we have no mention, were slain, and those who were not slain were captured by Brian. After this Domhnall O Faolain, king of the Deise, and Iomhar of Port Lairge made war on Brian, and they plundered the greater part of Munster. But when Brian came up to them and a battle took place between them at Fan mic Connrach, he defeated the Lochlonnaigh and the king of Deise, and Brian and the Dal gCais pursued the defeated host to Port Lairge, and Domhnall O Faolain and most of the foreigners of Port Lairge were slain by Brian on that occasion. He plundered and burned the town.

When Brian had been eight years king of Munster the whole of Leath Mogha were forced to give him hostages. But after the death of Domhnall Claon, son of Domhnall, king of Leinster, both the Lochlonnaigh and the Gaels of Leinster refused to submit to him. Brian assembled the main host of Munster to oppose the foreigners and the Leinstermen, and the Battle of Gleann Mama was set on foot between them. And Brian defeated the Lochlonnaigh and the Leinstermen, and four thousand of them were slain in that battle. In short, Brian defeated the Lochlonnaigh in twenty-five battles, from the first battle he fought against them to the last, that is the Battle of Cluain Tarbh, in which himself was slain.

After this Conghalach, son of Maoilmithidh, king of Ireland, went to plunder and spoil Munster, and he slew two sons of Cinneide, son of Lorcan, to wit, Echthighearn and Donn Cuan. After that Gothfriadh, son of Sitric and the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath plundered Ceanannus and Domhnach Padraig and Ard Padraig and Cill Scire and many other churches, and they seized on three thousand people in this place and took away with them much gold and silver and booty. It was about this time that Eithne, daughter of Fearghal, queen of Ireland, that is, the wife of Conghalach son of Maoilmithidh, and Maolcolum, son of Domhnall, king of Alba, and Gaoithinne, bishop of Dun Leathghlaise, and Tadhg, son of Cathal, king of Connaught, died. Soon after this, Conghalach son of Maoilmithidh, king of Ireland, was slain at Ard Macha by the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath and by the Lagenians.

Domhnall, son of Muircheartach, son of Niall Glundubh, of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland ten years. It was in this king's reign that Cill Dara was plundered by Amhlaoibh, son of Sitric, and the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath; and Domhnall son of Muircheartach, king of Ireland, went to spoil and plunder Connaught, and took preys of cattle and hostages from Fearghal O Ruairc, who was then king of Connaught.

It was also about this time that the principal church of Tuaim Greine and its tower were built by Cormac Ua Cillin, bishop of Tuaim Greine; and Fearghal O Ruairc, king of Connaught, was slain by Domhnall, son of Conghalach, son of Maoilmithidh; and Brian, son of Cinneide, king of Munster, plundered and burned Luimneach against the Lochlonnaigh. After this, Domhnall O Neill with a numerous host went into Leinster and plundered the country from the Bearbha eastwards to the sea, and encamped there for two months in spite of the Lochlonnaigh and the Leinstermen; and Maoilfinnein, son of Uchtan, bishop of Ceanannus and comhorba of Ulltan, died, and Ceanannus was plundered by Amhlaoibh Cuaran, and the Lochlonnaigh of Leinster, who took thence a large prey of cattle and much booty; and they inflicted a great and dreadful defeat on the Ui Neill when many fell on either side. It was about this time that the Battle of Cill Mona was won by Domhnall, son of Conghalach, and the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath over Domhnall, son of Muircheartach, king of Ireland, wherein fell Ardghal, son of Madagan, who was king of Ulster seventeen years, and Donnagan, son of Maolmuire, king of Oirghiall, with many other nobles. Soon after this Beacan, bishop of Finne, and Cionaoth O Hartagain, primate of Ard Macha, died; and Ughaire, son of Tuathal, king of Leinster, was captured by the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath. After this Inis Cathaigh, which was in the hands of the Lochlonnaigh, was plundered by Brian, son of Cinneide, king of Munster, and there fell eight hundred of the Lochlonnaigh; and three Lochlonnach chiefs were captured there, to wit, Iomhar, Amhlaoibh and Duibhgheann; hence the poet says:

    1. The slaughter at Inis Cathaigh
      Was thy work, no wastrel's deed,
      In which thou didst slay the leaders of the foreigners
      Around Iomhar and around Duibhgheann.

It was about this time that the Battle of Biothlann was won from the Leinstermen by the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath, wherein Ughaire, son of Tuathal, king of Leinster, was slain. Soon after this Domhnall, son of Muircheartach, king of Ireland, died at Ard Macha.

XXIV.

Maoilseachlainn, son of Domhnall, son of Flann Sionna, son of Maoilseachlainn, son of Maolruanuidh, of the race of Eireamhon, held the sovereignty of Ireland twenty-three years. Dunlaith, daughter of Muircheartach, son of Niall, was the mother of this Maoilseachlainn, and Gluiniarann was the king of the Lochlonnaigh in Ireland. It was in the reign of this Maoilseachlainn that the following events took place. For it was Maoilseachlainn himself who won the Battle of Tara over the sons of Amhlaoibh and the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath, wherein Raghnall, son of Amhlaoibh, heir apparent to the sovereignty of the Lochlonnaigh, with five hundred Lochlonnaigh were slain. After this Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, and Eochaidh, son of Ardghal, who was thirty-five years king of Ulster, went to spoil and plunder Ath Cliath against the Lochlonnaigh, and they encamped there three days and three nights, and brought thence as many as were held as captives by the Lochlonnaigh, to wit, Domhnall Claon, king of Leinster, and the sureties of the Ui Neill in general, and they forced the Lochlonnaigh to acknowledge their independence, and to allow them have their lands from the Sionainn to the sea free of Lochlonnach tribute or impost. It was about this time that Amhlaoibh, son of Sitric, chief leader of the Lochlonnaigh in Ireland, was banished and exiled to I Columcille in Alba, the Gaels having driven him out of Ireland.

Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, went to plunder and spoil the Dal gCais, and he cut down the tree of Magh Adhar. But, O reader, see whether he escaped punishment from Brian, as will appear later on. And Gleann da Loch was plundered by the three sons of Cearbhall, son of Lorcan. But the three were slain in one night soon after through the power of Caoimhghin who had lived and blessed there. It was about this time that Mor, daughter of Donnchadh, son of Ceallach, queen of Ireland, and Iorard mac Coise, primate of Ard Macha, died; and Domhnach Padraig was plundered by the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath and by Muircheartach O Conghalaigh. But God avenged this deed on them, for their death took place at the end of that very month. After this, Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, carried off by force a collar or ring of gold from a Lochlonnach leader called Tomair and a sword from another leader called Carlus.

Nevertheless, when the nobles of Leath Mogha and of the greater part of Connaught considered that it was Brian son of Cinneide who was undergoing the labour and hardship of expelling the Lochlonnaigh from Ireland, and that Maoilseachlainn, who was the king of Ireland, gave himself up to luxury and comfort and ease, a line of action that was useless for the defence of Ireland at that juncture, Brian and the nobles who were with him resolved for these reasons to send envoys to Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, to inform him that it was not right that anyone should hold the sovereignty of Ireland but one who should devote his energies to banishing the foreigners from the country, and that, as it was Brian who was undergoing the labour of banishing them, it was right he should get the sovereignty of Ireland for having relieved the country from the oppression of the foreigners. They also asked of the king to meet them at Magh da Chaomhog, but he did not agree to this. After this Brian, son of Cinneide, assembled and brought together the nobles of Leath Mogha both Lochlonnaigh and Gaels, for as many of the Lochlonnaigh as were in Leath Mogha were forced to submit to him at this time, and he marched with them to Tara of the Kings.

Thereupon he sent envoys to Maoilseachlainn who was king of Ireland, asking him to send him sureties for his being obedient and submissive to him as king of Ireland, or to meet him in battle. So Brian gave Maoilseachlainn his choice of these courses. Maoilseachlainn's answer to the envoys was that if Brian gave him a month's respite to summon to him to one place the forces of Leath Cuinn he would give either hostages or battle to him, and he charged the envoys not to permit Brian to waste or plunder Meath, but that he should remain at Tara during that month, and that he himself would give him either battle or hostages as soon as he had got a reply from Leath Cuinn. The envoys returned to Brian and told him the answer they had got from Maoilseachlainn. ‘Then,’ said Brian, ‘I grant them that respite.’

Now what Maoilseachlainn resolved on was to send Giolla Comhghaill O Sleibhin, his own ollamh, to Aodh O Neill, and Eochaidh, son of Ardghal, king of Ulster, and Cathal O Conchubhair, king of Connaught, asking them to come without delay to do battle with him against Brian and the Dal gCais, and pointing out that if all of these did not come to maintain the freedom of Tara for their own race, who possessed it such a long time, he himself would give sureties to Brian for his submission to him, as he was not strong enough to fight him. ‘And indeed,’ added Maoilseachlainn, ‘it will be no greater shame for me not to defend Tara than it will be for the clanna Neill and for the host of Leath Cuinn in general.’ The ollamh went with this message to the nobles of Leath Cuinn, and he made known to them the object of his journey and his mission. But Aodh O Neill's answer to him was, ‘When the Cineal Eoghain possessed Tara,’ said he, ‘they defended it themselves, and let him who holds it now stand out for its freedom;’ and he added that he would not set the Dal gCais at enmity with him by defending a sovereignty for another. The ollamh came back to Maoilseachlainn and repeated Aodh O Neill's answer to him. However, Maoilseachlainn went himself to Aodh and entreated him to go with him to do battle against the Dal gCais, and he said to him, ‘Hold Tara for thyself,’ said he, ‘and I will give thee hostages for the delivering up to thee of Tara, for I prefer this to Brian's having it. But if thou wilt not come with me I must submit to Brian, as I am not strong enough to fight him.’

Aodh O Neill assembled and brought together to one place to him the Cineal Eoghain, and told them of Maoilseachlainn's visit to their country and of the offers he had made himself, on condition of his going with him to fight Brian and the Dal gCais. The Cineal Eoghain made answer, and said there was nothing but deceit in Maoilseachlainn's promise to him, ‘for he is certain that himself is older and better than thou art, and hence that thou would'st not demand the kingdom of Ireland from him during his life. But,’ they added, ‘he would like that we and thou should go with him to fight the Dal gCais.’ Nevertheless Aodh asked them to take counsel amongst themselves on that question, and to give a favourable answer to Maoilseachlainn, ‘lest,’ he added, ‘his visit to us may not mean the loss of a kingdom to us.’ Then the Cineal Eoghain secretly took counsel and deliberated amongst themselves on this question, and it was their opinion that if they went to fight the Dal gCais it was not likely that even a small number of them would return from that conflict. For this reason they declared that it would be necessary for them to obtain property for their children after them, ‘for we should have hope neither of property nor of wealth for ourselves,’ added they, ‘ if we were to go and fight the Dal gCais, the bravest and stoutest race in fields of battle, and a race, too, that never fled from the Lochlonnaigh; it is certain that neither would they flee from us.’ Therefore they came to the resolution of demanding from Maoilseachlainn one half of Midhe and of the demesne of Tara for themselves and for their children after them in consideration of their going with him on that expedition, and they made known to Maoilseachlainn that this was what they had resolved on. When Maoilseachlainn heard this he became furious and returned home from them with indignation, and summoned to him the clann Colmain and made known to them the answer he had got from Aodh O Neill and the Cineal Eoghain.

Upon this the resolution they came to was that Maoilseachlainn should go straight to Brian's house, where his camp had been fixed for a month previously at Tara, the men of Meath supporting him there. Maoilseachlainn then proceeded to Tara accompanied by two hundred and twenty horsemen, and thus alighted on the green of Tara, and went immediately to Brian's house without either surety or protection, relying on the generosity of Brian himself and of the Dal gCais; and he told Brian all that had befallen him from beginning to end, and said that if he himself were able to fight Brian, battle was what he would give him; but as he was not, he had come now to give him sureties and hostages. When Brian heard this he said, ‘Since thou hast come into my house without surety or protection I grant thee a year's respite, during which I shall demand neither sureties nor hostages from thee, and I will go myself to visit these northerns, to wit, Aodh O Neill and Eochaidh, son of Ardghal, king of Ulster, that I may learn what answer they will give me; and if they give me battle then do thou not go against me with them.’ Maoilseachlainn promised that he would not go against him, and said that he would not advise Brian to go northwards on that occasion, but that he had better repair to his house until another time, ‘for my doing homage to thee is enough for thee this time.’ They agreed on this point, and the Dal gCais were glad of it, for they had nearly consumed their provisions; and as Brian was returning home he bestowed twelve hundred horses on Maoilseachlainn, and gave a large amount of gold and silver to his followers as well.

A year after this, Brian son of Cinneide, assembled and brought together the general forces of all Leath Mogha both Gaels and Lochlonnaigh. There came there the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath and of Port Lairge, of Loch Garman, of Ui Eachach Mumhan, Corca Luighdheach, and Ui Cinnsealaigh, and Brian proceeded with this great host to Ath Luain, and the nobles of Connaught gave hostages for their submission to him as high king.

Now Brian sent envoys to Maoilseachlainn asking him to send hostages to him to Ath Luain, and Maoilseachlainn himself came and gave him hostages and sureties. It was then that Brian brought together the main forces of Munster, of Connaught, and of Leinster, and of Meath, and he went with them to Dun Dealgan where he received the hostages and sureties of all Ulster. And it was in this way that Brian Boraimhe obtained the kingdom of Ireland, by the strength and bravery of his feats of valour and championship, driving the foreigners and the Danair out of the country, and not by treachery as others assert. For it was not the custom in Ireland that the son should succeed the father in the sovereignty of Ireland, as is plain from the history up to this point, but the sovereignty of Ireland was given to him who was the most powerful in action and exploit. And since Brian was the most powerful in action of the Irish in his own time, the majority of the nobles of Ireland chose him to be sovereign of the country, and as many of them as did not consent that the sovereignty of Ireland should be given to him were forced to submit to him against their will, and Maoilseachlainn was obliged to abandon the sovereignty of Ireland and cede it to Brian as we have said.

XXV.

Brian Boraimhe, son of Cinneide, son of Lorcan, son of Lachtna, son of Corc, son of Annluan, son of Mathgamhain, son of Toirrdhealbhach, son of Cathal, son of Aodh Caomh, son of Conall, son of Eochaidh Bailldhearg, son of Carrthann Fionn, son of Blod, son of Cas, son of Conall Eachluaith, son of Lughaidh Meann, son of Aonghus Tireach, son of Fear Corb, son of Mogh Corb, son of Cormac Cas, son of Oilill Olom, of the race of Eibhear, held the sovereignty of Ireland twelve years. Beibhionn, daughter of Archaidh, son of Murchadh, son of Maonach, king of West Connaught, was the mother of Brian. The descent of Beibhionn was as follows: Cianog, daughter of Ciocharan, a Connaughtman, bore a son and daughter to a Leinster chief called Criachan through the prayer of Caireall, abbot, and of seven hundred monks with him, who prayed together to God that this couple who were barren a long period of their time may have progeny, and God heard the prayer of Caireall and of his community, and Cianog bore a son and daughter to Criachan. The son's name was Maoilmithidh and the daughter's name was Osnadh; and the daughter was given in marriage to Archaidh, son of Murchadh, son of Maonach, king of West Connaught, and she bore him Beibhionn, that is the mother of Brian Boraimhe, son of Cinneide.

It was in the reign of Brian that the following events took place, to wit, Sitric, son of Amhlaoibh, went to spoil Ulster in a large fleet, and he plundered Cill Chleite and Inis Cumhscraigh and took many sureties and much wealth therefrom. After this Naomhan, son of Maoilciarain, chief artificer of Ireland, and Raghnall, son of Gothfraidh, son of Aralt, king of the Isles, a Lochlonnach, died. It was about this time that Brian Boraimhe, son of Cinneide, king of Ireland, went with a numerous host to Cineal Eoghain in Ulster and thence to Meath, and they remained a night at Taillte, thence they went to Ard Macha, and remained there a week, and Brian left twenty ounces of gold on the altar of Ard Macha.

They proceeded thence to Dal nAruidhe, and Brian got sureties for the keeping of peace from the entire province of Ulster. Soon after this Brian went with another large host to Cineal Eoghain and Tir Chonaill and brought many hostages thence as sureties for maintaining peace.

It was about this time that Maolruanuidh, son of Ardghal, king of Ulster, died, also Clothna, son of Aonghus, chief poet of Ireland, and Cathal, son of Conchubhar, who was king of Connaught twenty years, and he died in Iorras Domhnann. After this Murchadh, son of Brian, with the men of Munster and Leinster and the Ui Neill of the south, and Flaithbheartach, son of Muireadhach, with the young men of the Fochla went to plunder and spoil Cineal Luigdheach and brought thence three hundred in captivity.

Brian, son of Cinneide, king of Ireland, made a hosting to Magh Corainn and brought with him Maolruanuidh O Maoldoraidh, king of Cineal Conaill, to Ceann Choradh in captivity. Murchadh son of Brian spoiled and burned the province of Leinster as far as Gleann da Loch, and thence to Cill Mhaighnionn. It was about this time that the Lochlonnaigh with a large fleet went to Munster and plundered and burned Cork; and God requited them for this, for Amhlaoibh, son of Sitric, king of the Lochlonnaigh, and Mathghamhain, son of Dubhghall, son of Amhlaoibh, were treacherously slain by Cathal, son of Domhnall, son of Dubh da Bhuireann, soon afterwards. After this the Lochlonnaigh and the Leinstermen went into Meath, and they plundered Tearmonn Feichin and took thence many captives, and God took vengeance upon them soon afterwards, as is plain from the above account of the incursion which Murchadh, son of Brian, made into Leinster, in which he spoiled the Leinstermen and the Lochlonnaigh, as we have said.

As to Brian, son of Cinneide, when he was king of Ireland and had crippled the Lochlonnaigh, very great were the benefits he conferred on Ireland as we read in the books of the seanchus. Here follow briefly some of these benefits.

In the first place he restored and built churches, and gave every cleric his own temple according to his rank and his right to it. He built and set in order public schools for the teaching of letters and the sciences in general, and he also gave the price of books and expenses to each one who could not defray the expenses and who desired to devote himself to learning. He also gave freedom to the lords and territorial chiefs of the people; and all the spoil he had taken from the Lochlonnaigh he gave to the Gaels, and he freed all the Gaels from every species of oppression to which the Lochlonnaigh subjected them; and every territory which he took from the Lochlonnaigh by the strength of his arm, he gave it not to any of his own tribe, but gave each territory to the tribe in Ireland to whom it belonged of right.

It was Brian, too, who gave the men of Ireland distinct surnames by which each separate sept of them is distinguished from the rest. It was Brian also who built the church of Cill Dalua and the church of Inis Cealltrach, and restored the tower of Tuaim Greine. Moreover, Brian built many bridges and causeways and highways, and he built and repaired duns and fortresses and river banks and islands. He also built Cashel of the Kings and Ceann Abhrad, Inis Locha Ce and Inis Locha Gair, Dun Eochair Mhaighe, Dun Iasc and Dun Tri Liag, Dun gCrot and Dun Cliach, Inse an Ghaill Duibh and Inis Locha Saighlionn, Ros na Riogh, Ceann Choradh na Bhoraimhe, and the royal fortresses of Munster generally. It was also in the reign of Brian that a lone lady travelled from Tonn Tuaidhe to Tonn Cliodhna in the south, carrying with her a wand with a gold circlet or ring on it, and she was neither robbed nor violated, by reason of the rigour of Brian's rule in Ireland; and hence the poet composed this stanza:

    1. From Toruidh to pleasant Cliodhna,
      Having a circlet of gold by her side,
      In the reign of bright-limbed, intrepid Brian,
      A lone lady went round Erin.

Ireland was thus rich, prosperous, peaceful during the twelve years that Brian reigned over her, and for him the poet composed this stanza:

    1. The boiling of the sea, a rapid flood,
      Was Brian of Breagha over Banbha of variegated flowers,
      Without sadness, without calumny, without suspicion,
      Twelve years lasted his prosperity.

It is very easy to see from this character which the seanchas give of Brian that it # would not be right to call him a tyrant, for it was not according to his will or his strength that he governed the country during his reign, but according to the country's constitution and law. For a tyrant is one who governs and rules according to might and not according to right; and since it was not thus Brian acted, but according to right and the constitution, he cannot be called a tyrant.

Or if he should be called a tyrant (usurper) for supplanting Maoilseachlainn in the sovereignty of the country, having been chosen by the majority of the Irish nobles, let the reader judge whether it be more just to call him a tyrant (usurper) than to call the majority of the kings of Ireland who sprang from the children of Milidh tyrants (usurpers). For not one in every seven of them gained the sovereignty who did not do so by killing the king who came before him; and since they are not called tyrants (usurpers), being of the royal blood, for killing the king who came before them, in the same way, since Brian was of the royal blood he should not be called a tyrant (usurper) for having supplanted Maoilseachlainn, whom, though he was in his power, he did not kill, as other kings killed those who came before them in the sovereignty of Ireland, as we have said.

Here follow the tribute and dues that Brian Boraimhe claimed from the provincial kings of Ireland outside of Munster for the upkeep of the house of Ceann Choradh as stated by Mac Liag, chief ollamh of Ireland, in the poem which begins: Boraimhe town of the kings. In the first place he got from the province of Connaught eight hundred cows and eight hundred hogs; he got from Tir Chonaill five hundred mantles and five hundred cows; he got from Tir Eoghain three score cows and three score pigs and three score bars of iron; he got from the clann Rudhruighe of Ulster thrice fifty cows and thrice fifty hogs; he got eight hundred cows from Oirghialla; three hundred hogs, three hundred beeves and three hundred bars of iron from the province of Leinster; three score cows, three score pigs and three score bars of iron from Osruighe; he got from the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath thrice fifty vats of wine; and he got from the Lochlonnaigh of Luimneach a tun of red wine every day in the year. And when Brian sat in his royal seat it was the king of Munster that sat at his right hand, just as it was customary with all the kings of the race of Eireamhon to place the kings of Ulster at their right hand. None of the men of Ireland were permitted to bear arms in Brian's house, but the Dal gCais alone as the above-mentioned poem says in this stanza:

    1. None of the men of Erin,
      Only the Dal gCais of battle triumphs,
      Were permitted to use their arms there
      In the same house with the king of Erin.

It is to be inferred from the amount of meat and wine that was fixed for the support of the household of the court of Ceann Choradh, that with the exception of Cormac son of Art, and Conaire Mor son of Eideirsceol, there was none among the kings of Ireland who had a larger household and more followers and who kept up a more princely house than Brian.

When Brian Boraimhe was residing at Ceann Choradh without strife or discord he besought the king of Leinster, Maolmordha, son of Murchadh, to send him three masts of excellent wood from Fiodh Gaibhle. The king of Leinster had the masts cut down and went with himself to Ceann Choradh where Brian then was; and he ordered the Ui Failghe to carry one of the masts and the Ui Faolain another and Ui Muireadhaigh the third, and a war of words arose between them as they were going up Sliabh an Bhogaigh; and thereupon as the king of Leinster himself put his shoulder under the mast assigned to the Ui Faolain, wearing a satin tunic which Brian had given him sometime before, and which had gold borders to it and a silver clasp. And so greatly did the king of Leinster exert himself in bearing up the mast that the clasp of his tunic snapped; and when they reached Ceann Choradh the king of Leinster took off his tunic and gave it to his sister Gormfhlaith, daughter of Murchadh (that is Brian's wife), to fix a clasp in it. The queen took the tunic and cast it in the fire that was in front of her, and proceeded to reproach her brother for being in slavery or subjection to anyone on earth, ‘a thing,’ said she, ‘which neither thy father nor thy grandfather brooked;’ and she added, that Brian's son would make the same demand of his son. Now Maolmordha kept in mind the queen's remarks; and the next day Murchadh, son of Brian, and Conaing, son of Donn Cuan, happened to be playing chess, or according to others it was the comhorba of Caoimhghin of Glenn da Loch that was playing with Murchadh, and taught him a move which caused the game to go against him. ‘It was thou who gavest advice to the Lochlonnaigh which caused them to be defeated at the Battle of Gleann Mama,’ said Murchadh. ‘If I gave them advice which caused them to be defeated there,’ said Maolmordha, ‘I will give them another advice through which they will defeat thee in turn.’ ‘I defy thee to do so,’ said Murchadh.

Maolmurdha was enraged at this and he went to his sleeping apartment, and could not be got to come to the drinking hall that night, and he took his departure early the next morning without bidding farewell to Brian.

Now when Brian heard that the king of Leinster left the mansion without bidding him farewell, he sent a page of his household to detain him that he might give him wages and gifts. The place at which the page overtook him was at the end of the plank bridge of Cill Dalua on the east side of the Sionainn, as he was mounting his steed, and he delievered to him the message Brian had sent him. Maolmordha, the king of Leinster, turned on the page and gave him three blows with the yew wand he held in his hand, so that he broke the bones of his skull, and it was in a litter that he was carried to Brian's house. The page's name was Cogaran and from him are the Ui Cogarain of Munster.

A party of the household of Ceann Choradh desired to pursue the king of Leinster and not to allow him to go to Leinster until he had submitted to Brian. Brian, however, said that it would not be permitted to practise treachery against him in his own house. ‘But,’ added he, ‘it is from the door-post of his own house that justice will be required of him.’

Maolmordha, king of Leinster, went into his own country, and summoned and brought together to him the Leinster nobles, and told them that himself and all his province had been dishonoured and treated to abusive speech at Ceann Choradh. Accordingly what they agreed on was that they themselves and a Lochlonnach force should go against Brian, so that the Battle of Cluain Tarbh was set on foot between them; and since Brian had not left in Ireland as many of the Lochlonnaigh as could fight a battle, having left only the party he suffered, on the excuse of trading, to remain in Ath Cliath, in Loch Garman, in Port Lairge, in Corcach and in Luimneach, for the purpose of attracting commerce from other countries to Ireland, what the king of Leinster and the Lochlonnaigh decided on was to send to the king of Lochloinn for a force with which to meet Brian in battle on Magh nEalta at Cluain Tarbh. And when the message reached the king of Lochloinn he sent his two sons Carolus Cnutus and Andreas with a host of twelve thousand Lochlonnaigh to help the king of Leinster to fight the Battle of Cluain Tarbh, and when they landed at Ath Cliath the king of Leinster sent word to Brian to give notice that he would give him battle at Cluain Tarbh.

As to Brian, son of Cinneide, king of Ireland, he assembled the forces of Munster and Connaught and proceeded to Ath Cliath to fight the Battle of Cluain Tarbh, as we have said. And there went thither with him the race of Fiachaidh Muilleathan with their branches of descendants a great bulky stately host. Thither went also the descendants of Cas, son of Conall Eachluaith, to wit, the Ui Bloid and the Ui Caisin, and the descendants of Aonghus Chinn nAthrach, and the Cineal Baoth and the Cineal Cuallachtaigh, the Cineal Failbhe, and the clann Eachach under Ceallach, son of Duibhgheann, and the clann Choilein under Meanman, son of Eisidh, son of Sidh, son of Maolcluiche, and the Cineal Fearmhaic under Maolmeadha, son of Baodan. Thither went also the sons of Cinneide son of Lorcan, Annluan, Lachtna, Coscrach, Lorcan, Seanchan, Ogan, Maolruanuidh and Aingidh, Murchadh son of Brian, and his son Toirrdhealbhach and five brothers of Murchadh, to wit, Tadhg, Donnchadh, Domhnall, Conchubhar and Flann. Thither went in like manner the sons of Donn Cuan son of Cinneide, to wit, Longargan, Ceileachair, Cinneide, Fianghalach, Innreachtach, Eochaidh, son of Innreachtach, and Duibhgheann son of Eochaidh and Beallan and as many of the servants and followers of these as came with them. Thither also went a great host of Connaughtmen under Tadhg son of Murchadh O Ceallaigh, king of Ui Maine, and under Maolruanuidh na Paidre O Eidhin, king of Eidhin, with many of the Connaught nobles, through a feeling of kinship with Brian, for Beibhionn, his mother, was a Connaughtwoman. In like manner Maoilseachlainn son of Domhnall, with the strength of Meath under him, went to meet Brian to help him.

And when they came together to one place on Magh nEalta they prepared and arranged themselves for battle on either side, the king of Leinster and the Lochlonnaigh on one side, the two sons of the king of Lochloinn, to wit, Carolus Cnutus and Andreas being their leaders; Brian with the nobles of Munster, Connaught and Meath on the other side, with Murchadh, son of Brian, as their leader. Maoilseachlainn, however, did not wish to help them.

The battle was bravely fought between them, and the Lochlonnaigh and the Leinstermen were defeated; and the two sons of the king of Lochloinn and the nobles of the fleet who came with them fell there, together with six thousand and seven hundred Lochlonnaigh. There also fell the men of Ath Cliath and another company of the Lochlonnaigh of the fleet about four thousand. In like manner fell the king of Leinster and most of the nobles of Leinster together with three thousand one hundred Leinstermen.

Now on the other side fell Murchadh, son of Brian, the heir apparent to the throne of Ireland, and the majority of the Munster and Connaught nobles around him together with four thousand men. And a party of Lochlonnaigh who were fleeing into the country from the slaughter came upon Brian's tent, and some of them knew that it was Brian who was in it, and Bruadar, their leader, who was of the party, went towards Brian, and they slew him, but Brian's people slew Bruadar and his people. Here follow other supporters of Brian who were slain in that battle, to wit, Toirrdhealbhach, son of Murchadh, son of Brian, and Conaing, son of Donn Cuan, son of Cinneide, and Mothla, son of Domhnall, son of Faolan, king of Deise Mumhan, Eochaidh son of Dunadhach, prince of the clann Scannlain and Niall Ua Cuinn, and Cu Doiligh son of Cinneide, three companions of Brian, and Tadhg, son of Murchadh O Ceallaigh, king of Ui Maine, and Maolruanuidh na Paidre O Heidhin, king of Eidhin, and Geibheannach, son of Dubhagan, king of Feara Muighe, and Mac Beathaidh, son of Muireadhach Claon, king of Ciarraidhe Luachra, Domhnall, son of Diarmaid, king of Corca Baiscinn, Scannlan, son of Cathal, king of the Eoghanacht of Loch Lein, and Domhnall, son of Eimhin, son of Cainneach, and Mormhaor Marr, that is Muireadhach Mor of Alba, and many other nobles that are not mentioned here. The year of the Lord when the Battle of Cluain Tarbh was fought was 1034, the Friday before Easter. Here is the seanchas setting forth of the number of years that had elapsed from the birth of Christ to the death of Brian:

    1. Four years and thirty,
      With a thousand without deceit,
      From the springing up of a Physician to help us
      To the death of Brian in Breagha.

And Brian's age at that time was eighty-eight years, as the poet says in this stanza:

    1. The life of Brian with victories
      Up to the conflict with shouts,
      Four score years
      And eight are counted.

Moreover, Murchadh, son of Brian, was sixty-three years when he fell in this battle.

XXVI.

Now when the Battle of Cluain Tarbh was over and Brian and Murchadh with many Gaels slain, and the Lochlonnaigh and the Leinstermen defeated and the majority of them slain in that battle, and when the Dal gCais and race of Fiachaidh Muilleathan, had reached Mullach Maistean on their return journey, then the race of Fiachaidh formed themselves into a distinct host and separated from the Dal gCais; and as the Dal gCais were weak in hosts and contingents, they formed the resolution of sending envoys to Donnchadh, son of Brian, to ask hostages from him and to point out to him that his father and his father's brother had hostages from them, and they said they had a right to the sovereignty of Munster in alternate succession. ‘It was not with your consent ye were under my father or kinsmen,’ said Donnchadh, ‘it was they who made ye submit against your will and the men of Ireland with you.’ And Donnchadh added that he would give neither hostages nor sureties to them or to anyone else, and said that if he had enough of men to fight them he would not let them go without getting hostages from them for their being submissive to him as they were to his father.

When the Desmond host heard this message they arose promptly and suddenly, and seized their arms and went to give battle to the Dal gCais. Donnchadh, son of Brian, then directed his people to put their wounded men into Raith Maistean with a third of the host in charge of them, ‘and let the other two-thirds,’ added he, ‘meet that party in battle.’ Now the Dal gCais numbered then only one thousand, the remnant of a slaughter, while the Desmond host were three thousand strong. When the wounded heard this speech of Donnchadh's they arose quickly and put moss in their wounds and sores, and they grasped their weapons in their hands, and their counsel was to engage in the battle. When the race of Fiachaidh Muilleathan observed this courage on the part of the Dal gCais, both sound and wounded, they ceased to speak of engaging in the battle, and marched onwards to their homes without getting hostages from the Dal gCais.

As to the Dal gCais they marched on thence to Ath I on the brink of the Bearbha and began to drink water there. Donnchadh Mac Giolla Phadraig, king of Osruighe, was there to meet them with his full host and reserves, to wit, the Leinstermen and the Ossorians, on Magh Cloinne Ceallaigh, and he had set a watch on the Dal gCais to find what way they would take, by reason of his great enmity against them. For Brian had tied and bound Donnchadh's father and kept him a year in bondage, and had spoiled and wasted all Osruighe and slain many of its people. Hence Mac Giolla Phadraig kept up the enmity against the Dal gCais, and he sent envoys to them to Ath I, to ask them to send him hostages as a condition of his allowing them to pass from that place unmolested. But Donnchadh son of Brian's answer to the envoys was that he would not give hostages. ‘Then,’ said the envoys, ‘Mac Giolla Phadraig would have to be met in battle.’ ‘He will get battle,’ said Donnchadh, ‘and it is a pity that I did not meet the death my father met, before I was overtaken by the misfortune of these people demanding hostages from me.’ The envoys told him not to get angry, seeing that he was not strong enough to fight Mac Giolla Phadraig. ‘Now if it were the custom to give affront to any envoys whatever on account of their message,’ said Donnchadh, ‘I would have your tongues plucked out of your heads, for if I had but a single page as a following I would not refuse battle to Mac Giolla Phadraig and to the Ossorians.’

Then Donnchadh son of Brian set the third of the host in charge of their wounded and the remaining two-thirds to give the battle. When the wounded heard this, they sprang up suddenly, and their wounds and gashes burst open, and they filled them with moss, and they seized their lances and their swords and came in this guise into the midst of their comrades, and they besought the son of Brian to send men into the wood to fetch strong stakes which were to be stuck in the ground, ‘and let us be tied to these,’ said they, ‘and let our arms be given into our hands and let our sons and kinsmen be placed beside us, to wit, two unwounded men around each of us wounded, so that we may act together with the greater earnestness. For the unwounded man will be ashamed to leave his post until the wounded man of our company who is bound leaves it.’ They were arrayed in that way; and that array into which the Dal gCais put themselves was a surprise for the mind, and a very great wonder.

When the Leinstermen and the Ossorians observed this extraordinary courage rising in the Dal gCais they conceived fear and terror of them, and what they said was: ‘It is not a retreat in disorder or panic that may be expected from the Dal gCais,’ said they, ‘but the fighting of a close firm battle in self-defence. For this reason we will not give them battle, for they are indifferent as to whether they shall endure death or life.’ Mac Giolla Phadraig replied: ‘It is cowardly of you to say that, seeing that you are numerous enough to eat yonder company if they were cooked food.’ ‘That is true,’ they replied, ‘but though it be true, none of these will be slain without his having slain five or six, and how is it to our advantage to be slain with them?’ ‘Since you do not wish to give them battle,’ said Mac Giolla Phadraig, ‘harass them by pursuit;’ and the Dal gCais were less pleased at this than they would have been to give them battle. After this the Dal gCais proceeded unto their own country in want and in difficulties, and only eight hundred and fifty reached home with the son of Brian, for they lost a hundred and fifty through this harassing pursuit of the Ossorians on their failing to give battle.

The following is the account of the Battle of Cluain Tarbh which Maoilseachlainn son of Domhnall, king of Meath, gave a month after the battle was fought; for the clann Cholmain were asking him for tidings of the battle. Thereupon Maoilseachlainn said that he had never seen such a battle or an approach to it. ‘For,’ said he, ‘if God's angel from heaven were to give you an account of it his account would seem incredible. Now I and my host were looking at them at the distance only of a fallow field and a fence. But when these battalions had faced one another and stood breast to breast, they set to flail and to lash one another; and like unto a heavy flock of white sea-gulls over the coast, when the tide is coming up into the land, were the white showers of shields above their heads; and if we wished to go to the assistance of either side it was not in our power to do so, for our lances and our arms were bound and fastened above our heads by the firm closely set wisps of hair which the wind blew to us from the heads and beards of the warriors as they were being hacked and cut down by the edge of the swords and strong weapons on every side, so that we found it difficult to keep the handles of our weapons from getting entangled in one another. And we thought that those who were in the fight did not suffer more than we did who had to look on without running wild and mad.’

Observe, O reader, that though it was as part of the host of Brian that Maoilseachlainn and the men of Meath came to the field of battle, still through a plot between himself and the Lochlonnaigh, he did not come into the battle array amongst Brian's host, but what he did was to remain with his host beside the battle, as the Lochlonnaigh had directed him.

Neither the Cineal Eoghain nor the siol Conaill were at the battle, but it was not that they did not offer to come there, but that Brian said in his high courage that it was without them he gained any success he had ever gained, ‘and so it will be now,’ said he.

Maoilseachlainn held the sovereignty again after Brian nine years. It was in his reign that the following events took place. Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, with a numerous host, together with O Neill and O Maoldoraidh, went to Ath Cliath, and they plundered and burned the town against the remnant of the Lochlonnaigh who lived at that time not having fallen by Brian at the Battle of Cluain Tarbh. Thence they proceeded to Ui Cinnsealaigh, and they spoiled and burned the entire country, and many people were slain there. After that Maoilseachlainn went to Ulster and brought thence many captives. It was about this time that Donnagan, king of Leinster, and Tadhg O Riain, king of O Drona, and many other persons were slain by Donnchadh Mac Giolla Phadraig in the field of Leithghlinn; and Mac Liag, high ollamh of Ireland, died. Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, made a hosting in Osruighe, and there slew Dunghal Mac Giolla Phadraig, son of Donnchadh, and many other persons with him.

It was this Maoilseachlainn of whom we are treating who founded the monastery of St. Mary's in the town of Ath Cliath in the year of the Lord 1039. And this Maoilseachlainn was a pious man in his latter days. For when the power of the Lochlonnaigh had been broken at the Battle of Cluain Tarbh so that they had only the wardenship of seaport towns, while it was their wont to make incursions into the country at times to spoil and ravage, as they were not numerous enough to give battle to the Gaels, Maoilseachlainn began to restore schools and to build and set in order churches, after the example of Brian. We also read that he maintained three hundred students at his own expense.

It was in the reign of this Maoilseachlainn that Brian, son of Maolmordha, son of Murchadh, who was king of Leinster two years, was treacherously blinded by Sitric son of Amhlaoibh, in Ath Cliath. The same Sitric plundered and spoiled Ceanannus, slaying many people there and taking many captives thence. It was about this time that Ughaire son of Dunlaing, son of Tuathal, son of Ughaire, son of Oilill, son of Dunlaing, who was king of Leinster three years, inflicted a great defeat on Sitric son of Amhlaoibh, and the Lochlonnaigh of Ath Cliath, and dreadful slaughter was made of the Lochlonnaigh there. And Donn Sleibhe, son of Maolmordha, son of Muireigen, burned the house of Ughaire, so that Ughaire was burned in it at Dubhloch Leasa Cuile. After this, Sitric son of Iomhar, leader of the Lochlonnaigh of Port Lairge, was slain by the king of Osruighe, and Maoilseachlainn, king of Ireland, died at Cro-inis in Loch Ainninn.

Although the seanchas enumerate high kings as having ruled Ireland after Maoilseachlainn, I do not think that there was a king over the country without opposition until the Norman Invasion, notwithstanding that some of them assumed the sovereignty of Ireland. Here is the testimony of the seancha on this point in this stanza:

    1. After prosperous Maoilseachlainn,
      Son of Domhnall, son of Donnchadh,
      To no tribe remained a fair king,
      And no one king ruled Erin.

XXVII.

Donnchadh, son of Brian Boraimhe, held the sovereignty of Leath Mogha and the greater part of Ireland fifty years according to Finghin Mac Carrthaigh, in the booklet he has written on the History of Ireland, and others learned in the seanchus; and I think this opinion is more likely to be true than the opinion of those who say that Donnchadh reigned only twelve years. For Finghin's opinion is in accordance with the number of years that are from the death of Brian to the Norman Invasion, while the latter opinion is not. Hence I think that Finghin's opinion is the true one, which says that fifty years was the length of Donnchadh's reign. It was in the reign of Donnchadh that Harolt Conan, prince of Wales, fled to Ireland where he found shelter in the year of the Lord 1050. It was in Donnchadh's time that the following events took place. For it was then that Mathghamhain O Riagain, king of Breagha, took captive Amhlaoibh, son of Sitric, leader of the Lochlonnaigh in Ireland, and got a ransom of twelve hundred cows and six score steeds on his account.

It was about this time, also, that Flaithbheartach O Neill went on a pilgrimage to Rome the year of the Lord then being 1073. After this Tadhg, son of Lorcan, king of Ui Cinnsealaigh, died at Gleann da Loch while he was there as a penitent; and Gormfhlaith, daughter of Murchadh son of Flann king of Leinster, mother of Sitric, son of Amhlaoibh, leader of the Lochlonnaigh of Ireland, died, and she was the mother of Donnchadh, son of Brian Boraimhe. It was about this time that Cluain Fearta Breanainn was plundered by Art Coileach O Ruairc, king of Breithfne; and on the same day, Donnchadh, son of Brian, came upon him and made dreadful slaughter of his people in vengeance for that sacrilege they had committed. Soon after this, Cathal, son of Ruaidhri, king of west Connaught, went on a pilgrimage to Ard Macha. After this, Port Lairge was plundered and burned by Diarmaid son of Maol na mBo, king of Leinster, and Cluain Mic Nois was plundered by the Conmhaicne; and God and Ciaran avenged this on them, that is, most of their people and their cattle died soon afterwards.

It was about this time that Carrthach, son of Saoirbhreathach, king of Eoghanacht Chaisil, was burned, together with many other nobles, in a fire-house by the son of Longargan, son of Donn Cuan. After this Donnchadh, son of Brian, was deposed from his sovereignty, and went on a pilgrimage to Rome, where he died in the monastery of St. Stephen. And as to what many assert that the Pueraigh Eustasaigh and the Pluingceadaigh are descended from Donnchadh, I have found neither lay nor letter to prove that any of them were descended from him, except one stanza which is in the poem beginning: I will confer a favour on the clann Tail, which Maoilin Og Mac Bruaideadha a contemporary of our own has composed. Moreover as to the tradition that exists among many of the rustics who say that when Donnchadh went on a pilgrimage to Rome he had intercourse with the daughter of the emperor who was there then, and that she bore him a son, and that from that son might have sprung the three septs we have mentioned; this story cannot be true, for before setting out on that expedition he was a very old decrepid man of over eighty years of age, and it is not likely that an emperor's daughter would covet intercourse with such a veteran, and, moreover, it would have been unbecoming in him who went for the sake of pilgrimage and penance to covet any woman whatever.

And from what I have said, I judge that Donnchadh did not have intercourse with the emperor's daughter, and that she did not bear him a son from whom the septs referred to could have sprung.

The truth of this statement will be the more readily admitted as we read in an old book of annals, which was copied from the Speckled Book of Mac Aodhaghain about three hundred years ago, that Donnchadh, after having performed his pilgrimage to Rome, went to live in the monastery of St. Stephen in Rome, and that he took upon himself the yoke of piety, and passed the remainder of his life until death in penance in the same place.

We also read in the chronicles of the Normans, where the Norman nobles who came first to Ireland are enumerated, that it was at the beginning of the Norman Invasion that Robert le Power, from whom sprang the Pueraigh and the Eustasaigh in Ireland, first came, and the same authors say that the Pluingceadaigh are of Lochlonnach origin.

Toirrdhealbhach, son of Tadhg, son of Brian Boraimhe, held the sovereignty of Munster and of the greater part of all Ireland twelve years. Mor, daughter of Giolla Brighde O Maolmuaidh, king of Cineal Fiachaidh and and of Feara Ceall, was mother of this Toirrdhealbhach O Briain. It was in his reign that the following events took place. For it was then that Conchubhar, son of Maoilseachlainn, king of Meath, was treacherously slain by his own brother's son, to wit, Murchadh, son of Flann, and his head was forcibly carried off from where he was buried at Cluain Mic Nois to Ceann Choradh by Toirrdhealbhach O Briain the Friday before Easter, and the same head was taken back northwards to Cluain Mic Nois the next Sunday, and this happened through the wonderworking of Ciaran.

It was in the reign of this Toirrdhealbhach that William Rufus, king of England, by the permission of Toirrdhealbhach O Briain, king of Ireland, sent to Ireland for timber with which to roof Westminster HaIl in the year of the Lord 1098; and the year before that the first bishop, his name was Malchus, was consecrated at Port Lairge, by Anselmus, archbishop of Canterbury. It was about this time that Dearbhforgaill, daughter of Tadhg Mac Giolla Phadraig, wife of Toirrdhealbhach O Briain, king of the greater part of Ireland, died. After this Toirrdhealbhach O Briain, king of the greater part of all Ireland, died after he had reigned twelve years.

Muircheartach, son of Toirrdhealbhach, son of Tadhg, son of Brian Boraimhe, held the sovereignty of Leath Mogha and the greater part of all Ireland twenty years. Cailleach Dhe, daughter of O Heidhin, was mother of Muircheartach O Briain and mother of Ruaidhri O Conchubair. It was in his reign that the following events took place. In the first place it was he bestowed Cashel on the Church as an offering to God and to Patrick the first year of his reign, in the year of the Lord 1106; and about this time there was a general assembly of the men of Ireland, both lay and cleric, around Muircheartach O Briain, king of Leath Mogha in Fiadh Mic Aonghusa. Here follows the number of clerics that were at this assembly, namely, Maolmuire O Dunain, archbishop of Munster, and Ceallach son of Aodh, comhorba of Patrick, that is the vicar-general of the primate, and eight bishops, three hundred and sixty priests and seven score deacons, and many clerics that are not enumerated here. And they made regulations and laws and customs for the Church and the laity. After this, Maolmuire O Dunain, archbishop of Munster, died.

XXVIII.

It was also in the time of this Muircheartach that a synod or National Council was convened in Ireland at Raith Breasail in the year of the Lord 1100, according to an old book of annals of the church of Cluain Eidhneach Fionntain in Laoighis, in which are recorded the principal things done at that synod; and Giolla Easpuig, bishop of Luimneach, who was the Pope's legate in Ireland at that time, was president of that council. Now here follow the regulations that were made therein.

Just as twelve bishops were fixed under Canterbury in the south of England, and twelve bishops in the north under the city of York, a similar arrangement was made at the synod of Raith Breasail in Ireland, to wit, twelve bishops in Leath Mogha and twelve bishops in Leath Cuinn and also two bishops in Meath. It was at this synod that the churches of Ireland were given up entirely to the bishops free for ever from the authority and rent of the lay princes. It was there also were regulated the sees or dioceses of the bishops of Ireland. Here is the full number of the bishops of Leath Cuinn: six in the province of Ulster, including the primate; five in the province of Connaught, and two in Meath. And this gives the full twelve bishops of Leath Cuinn excluding the primate. The following are the dioceses of the province of Ulster, to wit, Ard Macha, the see of the archbishop of Ard Macha and primate over the bishops of all Ireland, Clochar, Ard Sratha, Doire, Cuinneire, and Dun da Leathghlas; the sees of Meath, Daimhliag and Cluain Ioraird; the sees of the province of Connaught, namely, Tuaim da Ghualann, Cluain Fearta Breanainn, Conga, Cill Aladh, and Ard Charna; the sees of Munster, Cashel held by the archbishop of Leath Mogha, Lios Mor or Port Lairge, Corcach, Raith Mhaighe Deisceirt, Luimneach, Cill Dalua, Imleach Iobhair. These were the seven sees which were decreed to Munster at this synod. Five sees in Leinster, Cill Chainnigh, Leithghlinn, Cill Dara, Gleann da Loch, Fearna or Loch Garman. Adding these five sees to the seven sees of Munster they make twelve sees in Leath Mogha. The reason why Ath Cliath is not counted here is that it was not customary with its bishop to receive consecration except from the archbishop of Canterbury in England.

Hanmer states falsely that the archbishop of Canterbury had jurisdiction over the Irish clergy from the time of Augustine the monk until the Norman Invasion. For you will not find that the prelates of Canterbury had jurisdiction over the Irish clergy except in the time of Lanfrancus Ranulphus and Anselmus; and even then the portion of the clergy of Ireland over whom they had jurisdiction were the clergy of Ath Cliath, Port Lairge, Loch Garman and Luimneach who were descended from the remnant of the Lochlonnaigh who were called Normani, and it was through a feeling of friendship for the people of Normandy who sprang from their own race that the prelates of these places gave jurisdiction and authority to the archbishop of Canterbury over them, as is clear from the booklet written by Dr. Ussher, for they considered if there were to be an election by the people between themselves and one of the Gaels who sought the same dignity, that their side would not have an equal chance, as in the election the Gael would have a larger popular vote than any of them.

I think that although the old book does not so state, it was six bishops that were in Munster and six in Leinster, with the archbishop of Cashel over them all as chief prelate of Leath Mogha after the manner of the temporal sovereignty as we have said above in treating of this matter in the reign of Laoghaire.

Here follow the sees or dioceses and their boundaries as they were regulated in this synod of Raith Breasail.

The see of the archbishop of Ard Macha, from Sliabh Breagh to Cuaille Ciannachta and from Bior to the Abhann Mhor.

The see of Clochar, from the Abhann Mhor to Gabhail Liuin and from Sliabh Beatha to Sliabh Largha.

The see of Ard Sratha, from Sliabh Largha to Carn Glas and from Loch Craoi to Beann Foibhne.

The see of the bishop of Doire or Raith Both, from Eas Ruadh to Srubh Broin and from Carn Glas to Srubh Broin.

The see of the bishop of Cuinnire, from Beann Fhoibhne to Torbhuirg, and from Port Murbhoilg to Ollorbha and to Cuan Snamha Aidhne, and from Gleann Riogh to Colbha Gearmainn.

The see of the bishop of Dun da Leathghlas, its boundary is not found in the old book.

The see of the bishop of Daimhliag, from Sliabh Breagh to Carn Duin Cuair and from Lochan na hImrime eastward to the sea.

The see of Cluain Ioraird, from Clochan westward to the Sionainn, and from Iubhar Coillte to Cluain Conaire.

The see of Cluain Fearta, from the Sionainn to Buireann and from Echtghe to the Succa.

The see of Tuaim, from the Succa to Ard Charna, and from Ath an Tearmainn to the Sionainn.

The see of Conga, from Abhann Ui Bhriuin northwards to Neimhtheann, and from Ath an Tearmainn westward to the sea.

The see of Cill Aladh, from Neimhtheann to Eas Ruadh, and from Cill Airdbhile to Sraith an Fhearainn.

The see of Ard Charna or of Ardachadh, from Ard Carna to Sliabh an Iarainn, and from Ceis Chorainn to Iobhar Coilltean. If the Connaught clergy agree to this division, we desire it, and if they do not, let them divide it as they choose, and we approve of the division that will please them, provided there be only five bishops in Connaught.

The see of the archbishop of Cashel, from Sliabh Eibhlinne to the Siuir and from Cnamhchoill at Tiobrad Arann eastward to Grian Airbh, that is Cros Ghreine.

The see of Lios Mor or Port Lairge, from Mileadhach on the brink of the Bearbha at Cumar na dtri nUisceadh to Corcach, and from the Siuir southward to the sea.

The see of Corcach, from Corcach to Carn Ui Neid, and from the Abhann Mhor southwards to the sea.

The see of Raith Mhaighe Deisceirt, from Baoi Bheirre to Ceann Beara, and from the Feil to Dairbhre.

The see of Cill Dalua, from Slighe Dhala to Leim Chon gCulainn, and from Echtghe to Sliabh Uidhe an Riogh, and from Sliabh Uidhe an Riogh to Sliabh Caoin or Gleann Caoin.

The see of Luimneach, the Maoilchearn eastward, Ath ar Choinne, Lodan and Loch Gair, and the Laitheach Mhor from Aine westward, and Ard Padraig to the south and Bealach Feabhradh and Tulach Leis, the Feil westward and Tairbeart and Cuinche in Thomond, and Crossa in Sliabh Uidhe an Riogh and the Dubhabhann. Whoever shall go against these boundaries goes against the Lord and Peter the Apostle and St. Patrick and his comhorba and the Christian Church. And the Church of Mary in Luimneach is its principal church.

The see of Imleach Iobhar, from Cluain Caoin to the Abhann Mhor, and from Cnamhchoill at Tiobrad Arann to Abhann Ealla.

The see of Cill Chainnigh, from Sliabh Bladhma to Mileadhach, and from Grian Airbh to Sliabh Mairge.

The see of Leithghinn, from Sliabh Bladhma to Sliabh Uidhe Laighean, from Sliabh Mairge to Bealach Carcrach, and from Bealach Mughna to Teach Moling and its termon lands.

The see of Cill Dara, from Ros Fionnghlaise to Nas Laighean, and from Nas to Cumar Chluana Ioraird and to Sleibhte Ghlinne da Loch.

The see of Gleann da Loch, from Grianog to Beig-Eire, and from Nas to Reachruinn.

The see of Fearna or Loch Garman, from Beig-Eire to Mileadhach on the west of the Bearbha, and from Sliabh Uidhe Laighean south to the sea; and if the Leinster clergy agree to this it is our pleasure, provided they have only five bishops.

The blessing of the Lord and of Peter the Apostle and of St. Patrick be on everyone of these twenty-five bishops who shall let no Easter pass without consecrating oil.

And there are many other good decrees of this holy synod which we have not set down here for brevity.

The cross of the comhorba of Peter and of his legate, that is Giolla Easpuig, bishop of Luimneach,

The cross of Giolla Ceallaigh the comhorba of Patrick and primate of Ireland,

The cross of Maoiliosa O Ainmire, archbishop of Cashel,

The crosses of all the bishops and of all the laity and clergy who were at this holy synod of Raith Breasail against whomsoever shall transgress these decrees, and the malediction of them all on whomsoever shall oppose them.

XXIX.

We read in the chronicle of Hackluite that when Muircheartach O Briain held the sovereignty of Ireland the people of the Isles sent envoys to him to request him to send some one of his kinsmen of the royal blood to rule over the Isles during the nonage of Olanus or Amhlaoibh son of Gothfruidh, who had an hereditary right to be king of the Isles; and Muircheartach sent a nobleman of his own kindred named Domhnall son of Tadhg O Briain to rule over them, and he held sovereignty over them three years, when he began to tyrannise over them, and for this reason the people of the Isles sent him back to Ireland.

We read in the same author that Maghnus, son of Amhlaoibh, son of Aralt, who was king of Norway, sent envoys to Muircheartach O Briain, and sent his own shoes with them, to command Muircheartach to place the shoes on his shoulders; and when the envoys had come into his presence they gave him their message. Muircheartach took the shoes from them and put them on his shoulders; and when the nobles who were with him saw this, they became greatly enraged, and they reproached him for having done this deed. ‘I prefer to do this,’ said Muircheartach, ‘to Maghnus's plundering any province of Ireland.’ After this Maghnus got ready a large fleet and came from Norway to Ireland to injure and ruin that country, and when he had come near Ireland he came to land himself with a wing of the fleet through his great hurry to work havoc; and when they had landed, the inhabitants of the country were in readiness for them; and when Maghnus and his detachment came on land the inhabitants sprang upon them, and Maghnus and his party were slain on that expedition. And when the men of the fleet he had left

behind heard that Maghnus their leader was slain, they returned to Norway. This Muircheartach O Briain of whom we are treating after he had spent five years in trouble died repentant at Ard Macha, and was buried at Cill Dalua in the principal church.

Toirrdhealbhach Mor, son of Ruaidhri O Conchubhair, held the sovereignty of the greater part of Ireland after Muircheartach O Briain for the space of twenty years. It was in his reign the following events took place. This Toirrdhealbhach built three chief bridges in Connaught, to wit, the bridge of Ath Luain and the bridge of Ath Crochdha on the Sionainn and the bridge of Dun Leoghdha on the Succa. This Toirrdhealbhach made a hosting into Munster and plundered Cashel and Ard Fionain, and when he was marching to spoil Ard Fionain a body of Munstermen came upon the rear of the host and slew Aodh O hEidhin, king of Ui Fiachrach, and Muireadhach O Flaithbheartaigh, king of west Connaught, and many other nobles not enumerated here.

Thereafter this Toirrdhealbhach with a large land and sea force went to Corcach, and set to plunder all Munster; and he divided Munster into two parts, and gave the southern part to Donnchadh Mac Carrthaigh, and the northern half to Conchubhar O Briain, and he took thirty hostages from them both. It was about this time that Cormac's church was consecrated at Cashel in the presence of many clerics and nobles of Ireland, the year of the Lord at that time being 1134. After that Cormac Mac Carrthach, king of Munster, was treacherously slain by Toirrdhealbhach O Briain, that is, his own son-in-law and gossip; and Maolmaodhog, that is Malachias, who was archbishop of Ireland and of Alba, died, the year of the Lord then being 1135. Toirrdhealbhach O Conchubhair with the strength of Connaught, Leinster and Meath, and of Feara Teabhtha and of O Ruairc's country, made another hosting into Munster, and they made a free circuit of Munster until they reached Gleann Maghair, where they met Toirrdhealbhach O Briain, king of Munster, and the son of Conchuhbar O Briain, and the men of Munster with them. They were three battalions in all. The Battle of Moin Mhor was fought between them and the Dal gCais, and the Munstermen were defeated there and a countless number of them fell. Toirrdhealbhach O Briain was banished to Tir Eoghain, and Toirrdhealbhach O Conchubhair divided Munster between Tadhg O Briain and Diarmaid son of Cormac Mac Carrthaigh.

Soon after this, Toirrdhealbhach O Conchubhair, king of the greater part of Ireland, died, and he was sixty-eight years of age at that time, and he was buried at the high altar of Ciaran at Cluain Mic Nois; and great was the legacy he left to the clergy for his soul's sake, to wit, five hundred and forty ounces of gold, and forty marks of silver, and all the other valuables he had, both goblets and precious stones, both steeds and cattle, clothes, chess and backgammon, bows and quivers, sling and arms, and he himself gave directions how each individual church's share should be given to it according to its rank. It was about this time that Tadhg O Longargain, bishop of Cill Dalua, died.

Muircheartach, son of Niall, son of Lochlann, held the sovereignty of Leath Cuinn and of the greater part of Ireland eighteen years till he fell by the men of Fearnmhagh and by O Briuin. And it was in the seventh year of this man's reign that an assembly and general council of the church of Ireland was convened at Ceanannus na Midhe in the year of the Lord 1152, to set forth the Catholic faith and to purify it and to correct the customs of the people, and to consecrate four archbishops and to give them four pallia. For there had been up to then in Ireland only two archbishops, to wit, the primate of Ard Macha and the archbishop of Cashel. And those who presided at this council on behalf of the Pope, were Giolla Criost O Conairce, bishop of Lios Mor, and head of the Irish monks, as legate, and a cardinal with him, whose name was John Papiron, for the purpose of making rules and regulations in Ireland, and for doing a thing which Ireland regarded with greater concern that this, to wit, the giving of four pallia. For Ireland thought it enough to have a pallium in Ard Macha and a pallium in Cashel, and particularly it was in spite of the church of Ard Macha and the church of Dun da Leathghlas that other pallia were given besides one to Ard Macha and one to Cashel, as the old book of annals of the church of Cluain Eidneach in Laoighis, which gives a summary of the transactions of this council, explains the matter.

Now, when the council met in session, they made praiseworthy regulations and customs on the occasion of the giving of these four pallia. Here follow the words of the old book of chronicles which was written in Cluain Eidhneach Fionntain in Laoighis.

In the year 1152 from the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, being a bissextile and embolismal year, a famous council was held as Ceanannus in the season of spring about the time of "Laetare Jersualem" Sunday, in which Lord John Cardinal Priest of St. Lawrence in Damascus, presiding over many abbots and priors, on behalf of the holy apostles Peter and Paul, and of the Apostolic Lord Eugenius, entirely rooted out and condemned simony and usury, and commanded by Apostolic authority the payment of tithes. He gave four pallia to the four archbishops of Ireland, to wit, to those of Dublin, Cashel, Tuaim and Ard Macha. Moreover, he appointed the archbishop of Ard Macha as primate over the other bishops as was meet.

And this Cardinal John, immediately after the council was over, took his departure, and on the ninth of the calends of April set sail. The following are the bishops who were present at this council, to wit, Giolla Criost O Conairce, bishop of Lios Mor and legate of the Pope in Ireland; Giolla Mac Liag, comhorba of Patrick and primate of Ireland; Domhnall O Longargain, archbishop of Munster; Greine, bishop of Ath Cliath; Giolla na Naomh Laigneach, bishop of Gleann da Loch; Dunghal O Caolluidhe, bishop of Leithglinn; Tostius, bishop of Port Lairge; Domhnall O Foghartaigh, vicar-general to the bishop of Osruighe; Fionn, son of Cianan, bishop of Cill Dara; Giolla an Choimdheadh O hArdmhaoil, vicar to the bishop of Imleach; Giolla Aodha O Maighin, bishop of Corcach; Mac Ronain, comhorba of Breanainn, bishop of Ciarraidhe; Torgestius, bishop of Luimneach; Muircheartach O Maoilidhir, bishop of Cluain Mic Nois; Maoiliosa O Connachtain, bishop of East Connaught; Ua Rudain, bishop of Luighne; Mac Craith O Mugroin, bishop of Conmhaicne; Etras O Miadhchain, bishop of Cluain hIoraird; Tuathal O Connachtaigh, bishop of Ui Briuin; Mureadhach O Cobhthaigh, bishop of Cineal Eoghain; Maolpadraig O Banain, bishop of Dal nAruidhe; Maoiliosa Mac an Chleirigh Chuirr, bishop of Ulidia. On the day before the Nones of March this synod closed in which the bishoprics of Ireland were set in order and determined.

After this council had concluded Domhnall O Longargain, archbishop of Munster, died, and some time after this Muircheartach, son of Niall, who was in the sovereignty of Leath Cuinn and of the greater part of Ireland at that time, died, having been slain by the men of Fearnmhagh and by O Briuin, as we have said above.

XXX.

Ruaidhri O Conchubhair assumed the sovereignty of Connaught and the greater part of Leath Cuinn, because the king of Oirghiall, the king of Meath and the king of Breithfne submitted to him, and, moreover, he is called king of Ireland in the seanchus. Still he was only a king with opposition, that is, a king to whose possession of the sovereignty of Ireland a great many of the Irish nobles were opposed. And it was while Ruaidhri reigned in this manner that the wife of Tighearnan Caoch O Ruairc (Dearbhforgaill was her name, and she was daughter to Murchadh Mac Floinn, king of Meath, and not wife of the king of Meath as Cambrensis says) sent messengers in secret to Diarmaid Mac Murchadha asking him to come to meet her and take her with him as his wife from Tighearnan; and she told the messengers to make known to Diarmaid that Tighearnan had gone on a pilgrimage to the cave of Patrick's Purgatory, and that, therefore, he would have an opportunity of quietly carrying her with him to Leinster.

There had been indeed an illicit attachment between them for many years previously. As to Diarmaid, when this message reached him he went quickly to meet the lady, accompanied by a detachment of mounted men, and when they reached where she was, he ordered that she be placed on horseback behind a rider, and upon this the woman wept and screamed in pretence, as if Diarmaid were carrying her off by force; and bringing her with him in this manner, he returned to Leinster. As to Tighearnan, when he returned to Breithfne and heard that it was against her consent his wife was taken from him, he made a complaint of this outrage to Ruaidhri O Conchubhair and to his friends in general.

Upon this Ruaidhri made a muster of the men of Connaught, Breithfne, Oirghialla and Meath, and set out with a large host to waste Leinster to avenge this evil deed Diarmaid had done.

When Diarmaid heard that Ruaidhri was marching to waste Leinster, he assembled and brought together the nobles of Leinster from all sides, and when they came to one place their answer to Diarmaid was that they would not go to defend the evil deed he had done, and thereupon many of them deserted him and put themselves under the protection of Ruaidhri, and made known to him that Diarmaid before that time had committed many acts of injustice and tyranny against them.

As Diarmaid was not strong enough to fight Ruaidhri, the latter set about spoiling the territories of all the Leinstermen who sided with Diarmaid; and he went on to Fearna and levelled Diarmaid's house, and broke his fortress, and banished him out of Ireland altogether. And Diarmaid went to Henry II., king of England, who was then in France; and when he had come into the king's presence, the latter welcomed him and showed him much friendship; and when he made known to the king the cause of his visit, the king wrote friendly letters to be taken by him to England, in which he gave permission to all who so wished to go with him to Ireland to help him to recover his own territory. Diarmaid, on this, bade farewell to the king, and proceeding to England arrived at Bristol, and caused his letters to be read there publicly; and he made large promises to those who would go with him to Ireland to recover his own territory.

It was there he met Richard Fitz Gilbert, son of earl Stranguell; and he made a compact with him, to wit, to give his own daughter, that is, Aoife, daughter of Diarmaid, to wife to him, and with her the inheritance of Leinster after his own death, Richard to be obliged to follow him to Ireland to recover his territory for him. After they had made a compact on these conditions, Diarmaid went to Wales to a prince who was there called Ralph Griffin, who ruled the country under king Henry, and made his case known to him. At that time the prince kept in prison a powerful nobleman of great achievements called Robert Fitz Stephen, for having disobeyed the king, and there was no relief forthcoming to him unless he chose to go to Ireland to aid Mac Murchadha by the strength of his arm in the recovery of his territory. And when the bishop of St. David's and Maurice Fitz Gerald heard that Mac Murchadha had visited this prince requesting him to free Robert Fitz Stephen from his captivity, they themselves came to request him in like manner to set Robert at liberty, and let him go to Ireland with Mac Murchadha. Now that bishop and Robert Fitz Stephen and Maurice Fitz Gerald were uterine brothers.

The prince then released Robert on condition that he would follow Mac Murchadha to Ireland the next summer. Diarmaid, on the other side, promised Robert Fitz Stephen Loch Garman and the two cantreds next it, as his property for ever, in return for his coming to help him to fight his enemy; and after this compact was made, Diarmaid bade farewell to these people and proceeded with only a small force to Ireland. Having landed in a place where he had many enemies and few friends, he went secretly to Fearna Mor Maodhog, putting himself under the protection of the clergy and community of Fearna; and he stayed with them sad and wretched during the time that elapsed until the coming of summer.

As to Robert Fitz Stephen he came to fulfil his promise to Mac Murchadha, and the number of the host that came with him to Ireland was thirty knights, three score esquires and three hundred foot; and the place where they landed was at Cuan an Bhainbh on the south coast of the County of Loch Garman in the place which is called Baginbun, and it was then the year of the Lord 1170, and the seventh year of the reign of Ruaidhri O Conchubhair. There was also a distinguished knight with Robert Fitz Stephen at that time, to wit, Herimont Morti, a knight of the party of the earl of Stranguell, whom he sent before him to Ireland to study the country, and when they landed Robert sent word to Diarmaid to make it known to him that he had arrived in Ireland.

When Diarmaid heard this he rejoiced, and went to meet them with five hundred warriors; and when they had come together they proceeded by agreement to attack Loch Garman with a view to getting possession of it; and when they were approaching the town, the burgesses came to the decision of submitting to Diarmaid, and of giving him four of the nobles of the town as hostages for their maintaining peace and paying him rent and tribute and for their being obedient to him as their lord. It was then that Diarmaid bestowed Loch Garman and the two cantreds next it on Robert Fitz Stephen, and, moreover, he bestowed the two cantreds next again to these on Herimont Morti, according to the promise he had made them in Wales; and after he had fulfilled this promise Diarmaid assembled his own people and the foreigners to one place; and the number of the host that assembled there was three thousand men, counting Gaels and foreigners; and they proceeded thence of one accord to plunder and spoil Osruighe; and the king of Osruighe at that time was Donnchadh, son of Domhnall Reamhar, an inveterate enemy of Diarmaid, and as they had come to waste Osruighe, while Donnchadh could not defend himself, he, with the nobles of his country, decided to give Diarmaid hostages for the payment to him of head rent; and thus Diarmaid was prevented from wasting the country.

Now when the nobles of Ireland heard of the arrival of Diarmaid and of these foreigners and of all the successes they had met with, they went to take counsel with Ruaidhri O Conchubhair, king of Connaught, who then held the sovereignty of Ireland; and what they agreed upon was to give him an auxiliary force from every province of Ireland; and when these forces had assembled in one place Ruaidhri marched with them to Ui Cinnsealaigh in the hope of driving Diarmaid and the foreigners from Ireland; and when Ruaidhri went into Leinster, Diarmaid and the foreigners, and as many of the Leinstermen as followed him, went into the dark fastnesses of the woods near Fearna Mor Maodhog to shield themselves from the great force of Ruaidhri's hosts. But as Ruaidhri saw that they were not going to give him battle he sent envoys to Robert Fitz Stephen asking him to quit the country, saying that he had neither right nor hereditary claim to be in it. Robert said, in reply to the envoys, that he would not desert the lord with whom he had come to Ireland. The envoys returned with this answer to Ruaidhri, and when he heard it, and heard also that Mac Murchadha would not on any account forsake the foreigners, he resolved to make a sudden attack with all his forces regular and contingent on Diarmaid and the foreigners and upset and destroy them.

When the Leinster clergy saw that the country was in danger of being thrown into disorder and destroyed by this conflict, they did their best to bring about peace between Ruaidhri and Diarmaid; and these were the terms in which this peace was concluded, to wit, Diarmaid to have the province of Leinster which he had inherited, and to be obliged to be obedient and faithful to Ruaidhri, as every king of Leinster was bound to be to the kings of Ireland, and in pledge for the fulfilling of the terms of this peace Diarmaid gave one of his sons named Art to Ruaidhri as a hostage. Moreover Ruaidhri promised to give his own sister to Diarmaid to wife; and on these terms they separated from one another in peace; but Diarmaid promised Ruaidhri not to bring any more of the foreigners to Ireland; and soon after this Maurice Fitz Gerald came to Ireland in the beginning of the summer according to the promise he had given to Mac Murchadha, and also because of the reward which Mac Murchadha had promised to himself and to Robert Fitz Stephen the previous autumn on condition of their coming to Ireland to help him to recover his own territory; and the number of the hosts who came with Maurice on that occasion was ten knights, thirty esquires and one hundred foot, and the place where they landed was at Loch Garman.

XXXI.

When Mac Murchadha and Robert Fitz Stephen heard that Maurice had come to Ireland, they went to meet him to Loch Garman; and it was then Mac Murchadha called to mind all the outrages that the people of Ath Cliath had committed on himself and on his father before him. Accordingly Mac Murchadha brought together this host with a view to marching to plunder Ath Cliath, and he left Robert Fitz Stephen building a fortress in the place which is now called Carrick, which is two miles outside of Loch Garman, and Mac Murchadha and Maurice Fitz Gerald with the majority of these foreigners proceeded to Fine Ghall, and they plundered and burned that country.

Now when the burgesses of Ath Cliath heard that the country round them was plundered and spoiled, they took counsel together, and the decision they came to was to send valuables and large presents of gold and silver to Mac Murchadha with a view to obtaining peace and a settlement from him, and with these treasures they sent him hostages over the walls of the town, and they promised to pay Mac Murchadha all claims and dues they owed him up to then.

Now when Mac Murchadha saw that he was succeeding in all his undertakings, he reflected in his mind that his ancestors before him possessed the sovereignty of Ireland, to wit, Cathaoir Mor, Conchubhar Abhradhruadh, Labhruidh Loingseach, Laoghaire Lorc, and Ughaine Mor and every other king of that race that had held the sovereignty of Ireland before him, and he said to himself that the strength or might of all these kings to hold Ireland was not greater than his own. Hence Mac Murchadha took Maurice Fitz Gerald and Robert Fitz Stephen aside and unfolded to them his design in this matter and asked their advice as to what he should do. They answered him with one voice, and said it would be very easy for him to carry out this design were he to send envoys to England to ask for more men; however Mac Murchadha asked them to send envoys from themselves inviting their kinsmen and friends; and he promised to give his own daughter to wife to Maurice Fitz Gerald or to Robert Fitz Stephen, whichever of them would accept her, and his princedom from his own death onwards. But neither of them consented to accept her, for both remembered that Mac Murchadha had promised that lady and the sovereignty of Leinster with her to the earl of Stranguell in return for his bringing with him his forces to recover his patrimony for him; and Maurice and Robert requested Mac Murchadha to send a letter to the earl requesting him to come over in fulfilment of the promise he had made him in England, ‘and make known to him,’ added they, ‘that thou art ready to fulfil thy promise to him, and will give him thy daughter to wife and the sovereignty of Leinster from thy death on; and, moreover, as to the four divisions of Ireland that thou dost not possess, make known to him that thou hast hopes of their becoming subject and paying rent to thee.’

Mac Murchadha sent envoys and letters to the earl of Stranguell in reference to this affair, and when the envoys had come into his presence and he had read the letters, and when, moreover, he had heard of the conquests Mac Murchadha and Robert Fitz Stephen and Maurice Fitz Gerald had made in Ireland, he went to where the king of England was, and asked leave of him to go and make conquests wherever he liked. But when the king understood the mind and intention of the earl, he did not give him full consent, neither did he give him a refusal. But the earl went away with the permission he had got, and he got himself and his followers ready to go to Ireland, and before he could himself get ready to go on this expedition he sent Raymond le Gros, son of William Fitz Gerald, an elder brother of Maurice Fitz Gerald, with an armed party before him to Ireland, and on reaching that country the place where he put into port was Dun Domhnaill, four miles south of Port Lairge; and according to the chronicle of Stanihurst the number of his followers was ten knights and seventy foot. And when they had landed they built a strong embankment of stones and clay in that place.

Now when news reached Port Lairge and Maoilseachlainn O Faolain, king of the Deise, that these foreigners had arrived in their neighbourhood, they were all seized with hatred and fear of them, and they came to one place to take counsel in reference to this matter, and the decision they came to was to attack the strangers in the stronghold in which they were, and to slaughter and destroy them.

After this they came (with their forces) to one place, and their number was three thousand men when going to oppose these foreigners. When Raymond saw them approach him he went out quickly and unwisely with his small party to meet that large host with a view to engaging them in battle and conflict. But when he saw that he was not strong enough to fight them, he retreated to the fortress he had himself raised. When the Gaels saw the foreigners retreating, they followed them vehemently and boldly to the fortress. But when Raymond de la Gros observed that his enemy were boldly in pursuit of him he turned on them and made indescribable slaughter upon that great host of Gaels, so that apart from all he slew of them he maimed and wounded five hundred of them on the spot.

Now after the feast of St. Bartholomew in the succeeding autumn in the year of the Lord 1170, the earl of Stranguell came to Ireland, and the full number of the host that came with him was two hundred knights and a thousand esquires and bowmen and men of valour of every description; and it was at Port Lairge they put into port. And when the news spread over the country that the earl of Stranguell had come to Ireland, Mac Murchadha and the nobles of Leinster and Robert Fitz Stephen and Maurice Fitz Gerald and Raymond de la Gros came to meet and join the earl with joy and in high spirits, and on the morrow they went by common consent to capture Port Lairge; and when they arrived at the town they made a united assault on it with a view to capturing it, and having it in their power; and notwithstanding the evils and hardships endured by the townspeople in maintaining and defending themselves, they sprang on them over the walls of the town, and slew of the townspeople as many as they came upon, and they captured Maoilseachlainn O Faolain, king of the Deise, and it was through Mac Murchadha's intercession that his life was spared.

Now Mac Murchadha took his daughter, whose name was Aoife, to meet the earl at this time, and she was married to him, and when they had made and ratified that match on both sides, the earl left a strong garrison in Port Lairge and marched at once with his host against Ath Cliath; and there was no man on earth whom the people of Ath Cliath hated more to see coming towards them than Mac Murchadha accompanied by these foreigners; and Mac Murchadha on his part was full of rage and enmity against them. For it was they who slew his father; and they buried him with dishonour and contempt, and buried a dead dog in the same grave with him as an insult to him. When the people of Ath Cliath saw these foreigners and the strength of Leinster, a large army, making towards them, they were seized with fear and alarm, and sent an envoy, to wit, Labhras O Tuathail, archbishop of Ath Cliath, to the earl to request peace and a settlement from him. And the archbishop promised the earl gifts and hostages from the people of Ath Cliath in consideration of their obtaining peace and protection.

But while the settlement was being made between them, Raymond de la Gros and Myles Cogan, with a company of young knights, were on the other side of the town, and they found an opportunity of breaking and gapping the walls of the town, and they entered the town suddenly, and there slew every person they laid hold of. But when the foreigners and Mac Murchadha had thus captured Ath Cliath, they remained in it only a short time, and the earl left Myles Cogan and a company of men to hold the town. Now there were enmity and ill will between O Ruairc, king of Breithfne, and Mac Murchadha, and the latter took this great host of foreigners and Gaels to Breithfne, and they spoiled and burned the country and gained great advantages over O Ruairc and over all whom they fell in with in Ireland.

XXXII.

When Ruaidhri, son of Toirrdhealbhach O Conchubhair king of Connaught and of the greater part of Ireland, saw that Mac Murchadha had broken the peace that had up to then existed between them, he sent envoys to him to reproach him for violating the terms of peace which had been agreed on between them, by his having brought over these foreigners without his own consent or advice. And when the envoys came into the presence of Mac Murchadha they said: ‘Now we know,’ said they, ‘that thou hast neither regard nor respect for thine oaths, nor for thy son whom thou didst give as a hostage for the maintenance of peace; and the king of Connaught, Ruaidhri O Conchubhair, tells thee that if thou wilt not dismiss those foreigners who are with thee, he will send thee thy son's head, and that he will not rest till he has sent thyself a second time to England to banishment and exile.’ Mac Murchadha replied that he would not dismiss the foreigners on the advice of Ruaidhri, and added that he would bring over more foreigners in addition to them, and he would not make peace or agreement with anyone of the Gaels until all Ireland should be his. The envoys returned to Ruaidhri and made known to him Mac Murchadha's answer to them. When Ruaidhri heard what Mac Murchadha had said he became enraged.

But now the fame and renown of these foreigners spread over all Ireland, so that the men of Ireland conceived a horror and dread of them. And tidings from the earl and from these foreigners reached England, and when the king of England heard these tidings he issued a command that neither ship nor bark from any land belonging to himself should go to Ireland, and that no intercourse or exchange should be carried on with that company; and he also commanded those who had gone from England to Ireland to return under penalty of being disinherited for ever. When the earl saw that his followers were obliged to leave him by reason of the king's proclamation, he and they took counsel together on this matter, and what they resolved upon was to send Raymond de la Gros to the king of England, to point out to him that it was by his own will and consent that the earl and the foreigners had come to Ireland to help one who had promised obedience and vassalage to him, to wit, Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, king of Leinster; and that whatever conquest they had made in Ireland and whatever benefits they had derived from Mac Murchadha they desired to hold subject to his will. Raymond conveyed this statement to the king of England, and it was in Gascony he was at that time; and it was in that year that Thomas, archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered the fifth day of Christmas, and the year of the Lord at that time was 1171; and it was at the Bealltaine of that year, i.e. the ensuing Bealltaine that Mac Murchadha, that is Diarmaid, king of Leinster, died; and he was buried at Fearna Mor Mhaodhog.

As to the king, he returned to England, and when he had arrived there, he sent one of his people, a knight named Herimont Morti, together with Raymond de la Gros, to Ireland with letters to the earl of Stranguell, commanding the earl to repair to England without delay; and when they had arrived in Ireland, Herimont delivered his message to the earl, and the earl together with Herimont proceeded at once to England, and when he had come into the king's presence he promised that he would give Ath Cliath and Port Lairge and the ports of Leinster to him and to his heirs after him, the remainder of the province of Leinster to go to the earl himself and to his descendants.

Now when they had concluded this treaty between them, the king proceeded to Ireland with a numerous host and put into port at Port Lairge.There came with him five hundred knights, as well as a large number of horsemen and foot-soldiers, the year of the Lord then being 1172. Now the king remained at Port Lairge after this, and the foreign nobles who were in Ireland before him and the burgesses of Loch Garman came to do him homage and pay him respect. There also came into his presence the king of Corcach, to wit, Diarmaid Mor Mac Carrthaigh, and he pledged himself to submit to him and become his vassal. The king went thence to Cashel and Domhnall O Briain, king of Limerick, went thither to meet him, and submitted to him, as Mac Carrthaigh had done.

After this the king of England placed a garrison of his own in Corcach and in Luimneach. After this the Munster nobles came to him and did him homage and paid him respect in like manner. The king returned to Port Lairge, and the king of Osruighe came to him there and did him homage and paid him respect as the other king's had already done. The king proceeded thence to the town of Ath Cliath, and the Gaels of Leinster came to him there to do him homage and pay him respect.

Now when Ruaidhri O Conchubhair, king of Connaught and of Ireland, heard that his provincial king's and those who paid him rent and tribute, and those to whom he himself gave wages and stipends, had put themselves under the protection of the king of England he judged in his own mind that it would be less an indignity for him to submit to the king of England voluntarily than to do so against his will. And then the king sent two of his people to meet Ruaidhri O Conchubhair, and those who went were Hugo de Lacy and William Mac Aldelmel. Ruaidhri went to meet them to the bank of the Sionainn, and he made peace and friendly alliance with the king in their presence, and he pledged himself to be obedient to him and to pay him respect. Murchadh Mac Floinn, king of Meath, also came to him and gave himself up to him as all the others had done; so that there was no king or leader or lord in Ireland who did not at that time make submission to the king of England and acknowledge him as their lord.

On the setting in of winter after this, the weather became very cold and dreadfully inclement, so that neither ship nor bark could come to Ireland with news from England to the king until the middle month of spring had come. After this ships came to Ireland, and they brought to the king news from England and from France which did not please him, and above all he was informed that the Pope had sent two cardinals to England to inquire how Thomas of Canterbury had been done to death, and they had said that if the king did not appear in person to give them satisfaction for this murder, they would subject to an interdict both himself and every land that sided with him. Though this was sad news to the king, sadder still for him was the news that reached him afterwards from his son, namely, that his eldest son had taken possession of the English crown in the hope of being able to hold it in spite of his father. An indescribable sadness seized on the king by reason of these tidings. Still he was more affected by the murder of St. Thomas than by all that his children and his people had done against him. Accordingly he summoned to him the nobles of his people to take counsel with them, and he made known to them every danger that hung over him, and the decision they came to was that he should send a large party of his followers before him to England, himself to follow them speedily. They acted accordingly, and the king remained behind to garrison and fortify Ireland.

And when the king thought it time to go to England he left a party to hold the country, to wit, Hugo de Lacy in Meath, together with twenty knights, and, moreover, he granted the fee simple of Meath to Hugo and to his descendants after him. He also entrusted the keeping of the town of Ath Cliath to Robert Fitz Stephen and Maurice Fitz Gerald, who had with them forty knights and their dependants. In the same way he left William Fitz Aldelmel and Philip de Hastings and Philip de Brus with twenty knights at Loch Garman to guard the town. He also left at Port Lairge Humphrey Bolum and Hugo de Gandeville and Robert Fitz Bearnard with forty knights. After this the king proceeded to England, and when he had come into the presence of the cardinals he said that he would grant them anything they desired as an eiric for the death of St. Thomas though he was not in the secret of his taking off, and for making peace between himself and the king of France with whom he was in conflict at that time.

XXXIII.

If thou desirest to be informed, O reader, why Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, king of Leinster, went to the king of England to France to complain and protest against his expulsion from Ireland, instead of protesting to the king of France or to some other king, know that it was because Donnchadh, son of Brian Boraimhe, and the real nobles of Ireland were at enmity with one another concerning the mastery of Ireland from the time of Brian to that of Donnchadh, and hence they bestowed with one accord the possession of Ireland on Urbanus, the second Pope of that name, in the year of the Lord 1092; and the Pope of Rome had possession of and authority and sovereignty over Ireland from that time to the time when Adrianus, the fourth Pope of that name, assumed the successorship of Peter in the year of the Lord 1154; and this Pope was an Englishman, and his baptismal name was Nicholas Breakespeare; and Stow says in his Chronicle that this Pope bestowed the kingdom of Ireland on Henry II., king of England, in the first year of the said Henry's reign, in the year of the Lord 1155. And the same author says that the conditions on which the Pope bestowed Ireland on the king of England were that he should build up the Faith which had fallen to the ground in that country, and that he should correct the evil habits of the people, and that he should maintain and protect every privilege and every termon land that was in the country, and that the king should pay Peter's penny every year for every house in Ireland to the Pope. When Henry II received this gift in writing from the Pope he sent John, bishop of Salisbury, with this authorization to Ireland, and he landed at Port Lairge, and when the Irish clergy heard that he had come with the authorization of the Pope they came from all sides to meet him, and when they had come to one place, John, the bishop we have referred to, read the granting of Ireland by the Pope to Henry II and to his descendants, and the conditions laid down in the document; and when the clergy had considered the conditions they all agreed to them, and they gave their assent then with their signatures in writing to this John; and he returned to England to the king, and the king sent him to the Pope with this document, and when the Pope saw the assent of the Irish clergy he sent a ring as a token of the possession of Ireland to Henry II.

Bellarminus agrees with the above in his chronicle where he says: Adrianus, the fourth Pope of that name, a native of England, a wise and pious man, bestowed the island of Ireland on Henry II, king of England, on condition that he would plant virtues in that island and root out vices, that he should see that Peter's penny was paid every year from each house, and that he should preserve the rights of the Church inviolate there. The bull in which these things are is to be seen in the twelfth book of the annals of Cardinal Baronius. {Adrianus Papa quartus natione Anglus vir sapiens et pius Hiberniam insulam Henrico secundo regi Anglorum concessit ea conditione ut in ea insula virtutes plantaret et vitia eradicaret; ut a singulis domibus quottannis denarium Sancto Petro pendi curaret, et iura ecclesiastica illibata servaret. Extat Diploma Tom. 12 Annalium Cardinalis Baronii.}’’

The English chronicle of Stanihurst agrees with this where it says that Henry II procured a bull from Pope Adrianus in which he commanded the clergy and the real nobles of all Ireland, under penalty of excommunication, to pay homage and be obedient to Henry, king of England, under pretext of his reforming the religion of the country and improving the habits of the people; and this bull came from the king to Ireland and was read at a general assembly of genuine nobles and clerics at Cashel. We read also in the same author that Alexander, the third Pope of that name, sent a cardinal called Vivianus to Ireland to make known to the Irish the grant of Ireland to the king of England and to his descendants, which he himself and the Pope who preceded him had made on condition that he and every Pope who should come after him would get out of Ireland each succeeding year Peter's penny for every household in the country.

Judge, O reader, that the reason why Diarmaid Mac Murchadha went to meet the king of England to France instead of going to meet any other king was because of the grant the Pope had previously made of Ireland to the king of England, and for that reason that it was the king of England who had authority over Ireland from the Pope and that it was his duty to demand amends or satisfaction for the injury done to Mac Murchadha.

Here I must express astonishment at a condition in the bull of Pope Adrianus in which he granted Ireland to Henry II. Here is the condition according to Stow's Chronicle, to wit, that Henry II was bound to reform and build up the Catholic Faith which had fallen down in Ireland. For it is not likely that the Pope would put that condition in his bull unless some party had given him to understand that the Faith had lapsed in Ireland. But whatever party told him this told a lie. For it is plain that the faith Patrick brought to Ireland did not lapse up to this time, and many foreign authors of weight bear testimony to this from age to age. For although, according to Beda in the History of Sacsa, there was a contention between some of the Irish clergy and the clergy of Sacsa concerning Easter, and, moreover, though some of the Irish were stained with the Pelagian heresy, still the greater number of the Irish were free from either stain; and as regards the Faith, from the time of Brian down to the Norman Invasion, it is clear that it was alive unimpaired in Ireland, and hence that those who informed the Pope that it had lapsed in Ireland when he bestowed that country on Henry II. lied. In testimony of this are the examples which we shall set down here.

In the first place it is plain, from the number of genuine Irish nobles who, towards the close of their lives, betook themselves to the principal churches of Ireland to end their days in penance, from the time of Brian to the Norman Invasion, that the Faith was then alive in Ireland. Here follow some of these, to wit, Flaithbheartach O Neill, who was called Flaithbheartach of the Pilgrim's Staff; he first began to do penance in Ireland, and after that he went to Rome on a pilgrimage in the year of the Lord 1073; and Donnchadh, son of Brian Boraimhe, who went on a pilgrimage to Rome and who ended his days in penance in the monastery of St. Stephen; and Tadhg, son of Lorcan, king of Ui Cinnsealaigh, who ended his days in penance in the church of Caomhghin in Gleann da Loch; and Cathal, son of Ruaidhri, king of west Connaught, who closed his days in penance at Ard Macha; and Muircheartach O Briain, king of Leath Mogha, and of the greater part of all Ireland, who went to Ard Macha and spent five years in penance there until his death; and so it was with many others of the true nobles of Ireland who closed their days in piety and as Catholics from the time of Brian to the Norman Invasion. Hence did those persons lie who told Pope Adrianus IV. that the Catholic Faith was not alive or in a state of preservation in Ireland before the coming hither of the Normans.

The second proof I advance to show that the Catholic Faith was in a state of preservation before the Normans came to Ireland is that there were many abbeys built there shortly before the Normans came, and that the Gaelic nobles built them. In the first place Maoilseachlainn, king of Meath and of all Ireland, built the abbey of St. Mary in the town of Ath Cliath, in the year of the Lord 1139. Donnchadh O Cearbhaill, king of Oirghialla, at the instance of Malachias, bishop of Dun, built the abbey of Meillifont in the county of Lughmhagh in the year of the Lord 1142. St. Malacias, bishop of Dun, built the abbey of Iobhar Cinn Tragha in the county of Dun, the year of the Lord then being 1144. The year of the Lord when the abbey of Buill was built was 1161. Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, king of Leinster, built the abbey of the Bealach alias Baltinglas in the year of the Lord 1151. The descendants of Maoilseachlainn, king of Meath, built the abbey of Bectif alias De Beatitudine in Meath in the year of the Lord 1151. The year of the Lord when the abbey of Maigh in the county of Luimneach was built was 1151. The year of the Lord when the abbey of O Dorna in the county of Ciarraidhe was built was 1154. Domhnall O Briain, king of Luimneach, built the abbey of the Holy Cross in the county of Tiobrad Arann in the year of the Lord 1169; and the said Domhnall O Briain built seventeen other abbeys in Munster. The year of the Lord when the abbey of Feara Muighe in the county of Corcach was built was 1170; and in that period there were built many temples and abbeys in Ireland which we do not mention here. Hence it is plain that the Catholic Faith was alive in Ireland just before the Normans came hither.

The third proof that the Faith was alive in Ireland just before the Normans came hither is that we read in the ancient annals of Ireland that, from the time of Donnchadh, son of Brian, to the coming of the Normans, the prelates and nobles of Ireland organized three national councils in Ireland in which laws pertaining to the clergy and laity were laid down and approved.

The first council was held at Fiadh Mic nAonghusa the first year of the reign of Muircheartach O Briain in the year of the Lord 1105, and in it laws and regulations were laid down, and religion was reformed in Ireland.

Another national council was convened in Ireland the fifth year of the reign of the said Muircheartach, when the nobles and the ecclesiastics of Ireland came together at Raith Breasal, in the year of the Lord 1110, where sees or dioceses and their boundaries were regulated, and a fixed number of bishops placed over them, as we have said.

The third national council held in Ireland by the clergy and the genuine nobles of Ireland was at Ceanannus na Midhe, at which were Christianus, that is Giolla Criost O Conaire, bishop of Lios Mor, the Pope's legate in Ireland at the time, together with a cardinal called John Papiron, for the purpose of presenting four pallia to four archbishops in Ireland and of putting down simony and usury, and enforcing the payment of tithes, and of putting down robbery and rape and bad morals and evils of every kind besides.

XXXIV.

It is plain from the examples given above that the Catholic Faith was alive in Ireland just before the Normans came hither; and as regards the bad morals of the Gaels before the Normans came amongst them, it is certain that there came with the Norman Invasion five leaders who did more evil deeds than all the Gaels that lived from the time of Brian to the Norman Invasion as regards the plundering of churches and clerics, bloody deeds of treachery and violent tyranny. Here are their names, the earl of Stranguell, Robert Fitz Stephen, Hugo de Lacy, John de Courcy and William Fitz Aldelmel. It will be easy to see the truth of this from what we shall hereafter state, and in particular from the chronicle of Stanihurst, and moreover from the fact that the majority of these persons on account of their own misdeeds left behind them no son to take up his father's inheritance.

As a proof of this take the earl of Stranguell, Robert Fitz Stephen, John de Courcy and some other leaders whom we shall not mention here who came in the beginning of the conquest. And as regards Richard Stranguell, according to Stanihurst's chronicle after he had committed many robberies and sacrileges against the laity and the church, he died in Ath Cliath seven years after he had come to Ireland, in the year of the Lord 1177; and the only progenny by Aoife, daughter of Diarmaid, that survived him was one daughter called Isabella, and that daughter was married to William Maruscal, and she bore him five sons and five daughters, and the sons died one after another, no offspring or heir remaining after any of them, and the daughters were married to a number of English nobles, and in that way the earl did not leave a son to become his heir.

As regards Hugo de Lacy, when he received the government of Meath from Henry II he set to slay and behead the clann Colmain and the nobles of Meath, as many of them as he could lay hold on, and as he was building a fortified residence in Durmhagh in Meath a young nobleman of Meath came in the guise of a clown to do work for him, and he slew Hugo. The chronicle of Stanihurst says that the said Hugo was a lustful and very avaricious man. It also states that young Hugo his son and John de Courcy set about committing many robberies and murders and deeds of violence upon the people of Meath to avenge the death of Hugo. The same chronicle says that William Fitz Aldelmel was deceitful, treacherous and of evil disposition, and also relates how he took by treachery from the children of Maurice Fitz Gerald manors which were their own property, and adds that he was ever envious of Maurice and of his children. Moreover, we read in the ancient annals of Ireland that when William Fitz Aldelmel was ruling in Luimneach on behalf of the king of England there arose a confiict between two brothers of the family of Conchubhar for the sovereignty of Connaught, to wit, Cathal Croibhdhearg and Cathal Carrach; and William took the part of Cathal Carrach against Cathal Croibhdhearg; and John de Courcy took the other Cathal's part. This disagreement between the two Cathals was fed on both sides by William and by John until the entire country was destroyed and plundered by them, and till many of the nobles of Connaught were beheaded in that conflict as a result of that disagreement, and a battle took place between the two Cathals, the foreigners helping them on either side, and Cathal Carrach and his followers were defeated and himself was slain in that conflict.

After that William Fitz Aldelmel built a castle in Milioc Ui Mhadagain, and left a large garrison there and went himself to Luimneach. Cathal Croibhdhearg encamped in front of them to lay siege to them; but the garrison escaped by night and followed William to Luimneach,; and Cathal Croibhdhearg razed the castle of Milioc. After this William Fitz Aldelmel got together a host and invaded Connaught, and spoiled and plundered churches and country districts, and made dreadful slaughter on all he encountered of them, so that the Connaught clergy cursed him, as we read in the ancient annals of Ireland which were written about three hundred years ago in a chief book of seanchus which was called the Leabhar Breac of Mac Aodhagain. And in the same book we read that God, on account of his misdeeds, in a miraculous manner, inflicted a foul deformity and an incurable disease on him through which he died a loathsome death, and that he received neither Extreme Unction nor Penance, and that he was not buried in any churchyard but in a deserted grange.

After this a quarrel commenced between John de Courcy and young Hugo de Lacy, and many of the men of Ulster and of Meath fell in the conflict, and both these regions were plundered and spoiled by reason of their quarrel. And the end of this quarrel was that John de Courcy was treacherously taken prisoner by young Hugo de Lacy and that he was delivered into the hands of the Normans; and Hugo de Lacy undertook to prefer a charge of treason against him. He was sent as a prisoner to England, where he was for a time in captivity. The king granted him a pardon after that, and gave him leave to return to Ireland, and he went to sea to proceed to Ireland, when a storm arose against him and he was put back to land, and so it befel him fourteen times, putting out to sea and being put back again to England, according to Stanihurst's chronicle; and the fifteenth time he went to sea the storm drove him to France, and he died in that country.

We read in the same narrative that a nobleman of the family of John de Courcy who dwelt in Ireland was slain by young Hugo de Lacy and by Walter de Lacy his brother, so that many quarrels and conflicts arose between the nobleman's friends and the sons of Hugo de Lacy to whom we have referred, so that king John was forced to go with a great host of foreigners and Gaels to Meath to chastise these sons. And when they heard this they proceeded to Carraig Fhearghusa, and the king pursued them thither, and they took ship there and fled to France, and both went in disguise as two gardeners to work in the garden of an abbot in the abbey of S. Taurin in Normandy, and they passed some time in that disguise, remaining concealed; and some time afterwards they made their secret known to the abbot and asked him to beseech the king of England to make peace with them and forgive them; and the abbot obtained this for them, and they came to Ireland under these circumstances, the king having restored them to their rank and to their lands; and king John died after this in the year of the Lord 1216.

After this also in the time of Henry III there arose a great war between young Hugo de Lacy and William Maruscal, and they destroyed all Meath, and many Gaels fell on either side helping them. A great war also took place between Myler and Geoffrey Moireis and William Maruscal; and many men of Leinster and Munster were destroyed between them on either side.

Hanmer says in his narrative that William Maruscal was cursed by the bishop of Fearna for his having taken from him two manors which he possessed as his private property; and, having been excommunicated, he died in England; and since his children did not wish to restore that property the five sons died one after another, none of them having left an heir. And the above-mentioned Myler went to Cluain Mic Nois with a numerous host, where they encamped twelve nights, and they plundered the town, carrying off cattle and food, and also they plundered its temples and churches.

When indeed the Gaels observed the tyranny and injustice, the spoliation and sacrilege the people I have referred to had committed, and also how Lios Mor with its termon lands was plundered by Herimont Morti and by Raymond de la Gros, according to Stanihurst's chronicle, although the said Herveus or Herimont donned a monk's habit and built the abbey of Dun Broith in the county of Loch Garman in the year of the Lord 1179 to expiate the evil he had done in Ireland, and in like manner how William Fitz Aldelmel plundered the church of Inis Cathach and its termon lands, as well as many other churches, and, moreover, that what these same Normans, through the excess of vanity, pride and haughtiness that had grown up in them, paid attention to, was to keep up constant dissension among themselves and to destroy and waste the Gaels between each of their pairs of factions, and that they had no mind, as the Gaels thought, to reform religion or to correct morals in Ireland,—observing these things the Gaels thought to rid themselves of the oppression of these people. And accordingly a body of Gaelic nobles went to the house of Conchubhar of Maonmhagh, king of Connaught, who dwelt at Dun Leogha in Ui Maine, to make him ruler over them.

First Domhnall O Briain, king of Luimneach, and Ruaidhri Mac Duinnsleibhe, king of Ulidia, and Domhnall Mac Carrthaigh, king of Desmond, Maoilseachlainn Beag, king of Meath, and O Ruairc, king of Ui Briuin and Conmhaicne, went to his house, and whatever the counsel they adopted, Conchubhar was fatefully slain before they had put it into execution.

It is plain from the facts we have stated above, that it was owing to tyranny and wrong and the want of fulfilling their own law on the part of the Norman leaders in Ireland that there was so much resistance on the part of the Gaels to the Norman yoke. For I do not think there is a race in Europe who would be more obedient to law than the Irish if the law were justly administered to them. And this is the testimony which John Davies gives of them in the last page of the first book which he has written on Ireland. Thus does he speak: There is no nation under the sun that love equal and indifferent iustice better than the Irish or will rest better satisfied with the execution thereof, although it be against themselves, provided they have the protection and benefit of the law when upon just occasion they do desire it. {There is noe nation of people under the sunn that doeth love equall and indifferent iustice better than the Irish, or will rest better satisfied with the execution thereof, although it be against themselves, soe as they maie have the protection and benefitt of the lawe when uppon iust occation they doe desire it.}’’

From the testimony of this author it is to be inferred that it was not through evil disposition on the part of the Irish that they often rebelled against the law, but through the rulers often failing to administer the law justly to them.

Other leaders came to Ireland in the beginning of the Norman Invasion, besides the five we have named above, who did not commit the deeds of treachery that the said five committed, and who did much good in Ireland by building churches and abbeys and giving church lands to clerics for their support, together with many other good deeds besides, and God gave them as a return for this that there are many descendants after them at this day in Ireland, to wit, the Gearaltaigh and the Burcaigh, the Builtearaigh and the Barraigh, the Cursaigh and the Roistigh, the Puerigh and the Grasaigh, and the Prionndarghasaigh, the Pleimonnaigh, the Puirsealaigh and the Priosdunaigh, the Noinnsionnaigh and the Breathnaigh, the Toibinigh and the Suirtealaigh and the Bloinnsinigh, the clann Feorais, the Conndunaigh, the Cantualaigh, the Deibhriusaigh, the Dairsidhigh, the Diolmhainigh, the Easmontaigh, the Leisigh, the Brunaigh and the Keitinnigh, and many other descendants of the Norman nobles who sprang from other leaders whom we shall not name here.

THE END