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Book of Acts Chapter 2, Part 3, and Acts Chapter 3 - Christogenea Internet Radio 05-17-2013
This is our fifth installment on the Book of Acts, and we are not quite through Chapter 2. To this point in this chapter of Acts, we have seen that the outpouring of the Spirit which occurred at this first Pentecost was in fulfillment of the prophecy found in Joel chapter 2, which Peter quotes. However it was also the beginning of a fulfillment of a prophecy found in Isaiah chapter 44, where Yahweh says to the dispersed children of Israel “3 For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring: 4 And they shall spring up as among the grass, as willows by the water courses.” Furthermore, it was the beginning of the fulfillment of the prophecy found in Ezekiel chapter 37, where it says in part “9 Then said he unto me, Prophesy unto the wind, prophesy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.” The children of Israel are the “slain”, because they were under the penalty of death in the law when Yahweh cast them off from His presence. Of course, all these things were only promised to the children of Israel, and cannot be applied outside of that context with any justice. We have also seen that this deposit of the Spirit at the first Pentecost and thereafter was only a beginning, a deposit, as Paul called it, and the early rain which James referred to. Now we await the fulfillment, the redemption of our bodies, the latter rain that brings the fruit to its perfection.
We have presented one contention with the standard translations, where we have explained our reading of verse 21, that “it shall be that all who shall be called by the Name of Yahweh shall be preserved”. In the first segment presenting this chapter we called upon many scriptural witnesses and explained the Greek grammar in defense of this reading. For Yahweh has placed His Name upon the children of Israel, and all Israel shall be saved, as it is written. True Christians need to understand that, and treat all of their brethren accordingly. A belief in salvation by works rather than by the mercy of God, is a denial of Christ and a belief that a man can save his own soul by his own hand.
2 Corinthians 3: “11 For another foundation no one is able to place besides that which is established, which is Yahshua Christ. 12 Now if anyone builds upon that foundation gold, silver, precious stones, timber, fodder, straw, 13 the work of each will become evident; indeed the day will disclose it, because in fire it is revealed; and of what quality the work of each is, the fire will scrutinize. 14 If the work of anyone who has built remains, he will receive a reward. 15 If the work of anyone burns completely, he will suffer loss, but he himself will be preserved, although consequently through fire.” As Yahshua Christ told us in the Gospel where the woman anointed His feet, “her many errors are forgiven, because she has loved much. But to whom little is forgiven, loves little.”
We have also seen that the gift of tongues was a fulfillment of prophecy, namely Isaiah 28:11, which Paul cites in a discussion on the gift of tongues at 1 Corinthians 14:21 where he says “In the law it is written, With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people; and yet for all that will they not hear me, saith the Lord.” Paul cites this passage to demonstrate the reason why the gift of tongues was dispensed by the Holy Spirit at that time. Now that time has passed, and once the apostles had spread the Gospel and Israel, or at least sufficient portions of Israel, had received it, the gift of tongues was no longer necessary. Regardless of what the organized so-called churches have taught, ever since our Israelite people heard the Gospel and learned of the New Covenant in Christ, we have been under a different commission from God, that found in association with the promise of that New Covenant which is explicitly given at Jeremiah 31:34: “34 And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.” So we see that the organized so-called churches have not properly understood the Christian commission.
The day which all Christians should be waiting upon is the Day of Yahweh's vengeance, which is described by Malachi in the fourth chapter of his prophecy: “For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.” Any Christian ministry which thinks it has a legitimate message should therefore be bearing that same message promised by Yahweh God in that same prophecy: “5 Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD: 6 And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.” Only Identity Christians bear that message, in concert with what is found concerning the New Covenant in Jeremiah chapter 31, and also what is found concerning the fishers and hunters in Jeremiah chapter 16.
Jeremiah 16: “16 Behold, I will send for many fishers, saith the LORD, and they shall fish them; and after will I send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain, and from every hill, and out of the holes of the rocks.” The gift of tongues was for the period of the fishers. The period of the hunters requires a different gift.
With this we shall commence with our presentation of Acts where we left off in chapter 2:
42 And they were firmly adhering to the teaching of the ambassadors and in the fellowship, in the breaking of bread and in prayers. 43 And fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs came through the ambassadors. 44 And all those believing were in the same place and held all things in common.
To the end of verse 43, the Codices Sinaiticus (א), Alexandrinus (A) and Ephraemi Syri (C) add “in Jerusalem and there was great fear upon all and”, where the sentence would not end and the word rendered and which begins verse 44 would be rendered as then; the text of the Christogenea in this instance agrees with the Codex Vaticanus (B) and the Majority Text. The Codex Bezae (D) also agrees, although that manuscript adds the words “in Jerusalem” in verse 42.
45 And possessions and belongings they sold and distributed them [meaning the price of them] to all just as anyone had need.
The words κτῆμα (2933), possessions, and ὕπαρξις (5223), or belongings here, are synonyms, and while any distinction between the two is not perfectly clear, one seems to refer to real property and the other to movable possessions. Neither of these seems to refer to the simple personal possessions which one may have, such as the tools necessary to ply ones trade or possessions such as books or cooking implements or basic house furnishings and the like. Rather, according to Thayer while κτῆμα means possessions, it was used of Greek writers to describe property, lands and estates, where ὕπαρξις described possessions, goods, wealth or property.
46 And each day persevering with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at each house, they partook of food in exultation and in simplicity of heart, 47 praising Yahweh and having goodwill toward all the people.And the Prince added to those being saved daily in that place.
The word χάρις(5485), which is goodwill here, is, according to Liddell & Scott, “outward grace or favor...graciousness, kindness, goodwill...thankfulness, thanks, gratitude”. The word ὅλος (3650) is literally the whole, although there are many situations in English where the word is more naturally rendered “all”, as the King James Version has done, according to Strong’s Concordance, approximately 66 times. However even rendered “all” here, the meaning is still “the whole people”, and only this people where the body of Christians being formed is what is meant to be referenced. The clause containing these words may alternately be rendered “having thanks in regards to all the people”. The Codex Bezae, rather strangely, has world rather than people.
“And the Prince added to those being saved daily in that place”: The Majority Text adds the phrase “to the assembly” and reads the words “in that place”, a phrase which the King James Version is wanting, as part of the sentence which follows. Therefore it would appear at the beginning of chapter 3.The text here follows P91, and the Codices Sinaiticus (א), Alexandrinus (A), Vaticanus (B) and Ephraemi Syri (C).
This statement does not mean that all Israel was not saved on the cross of Christ, for indeed they were. In fact, it is all of Israel which is being saved. Rather, this statement infers that God was collecting to this Christian assembly those being saved out of the people in Judaea, who were only a small portion of the Israelites among all of the other Israelites of the ancient dispersions. All Israel are “those being saved”, and an assembly of them is growing here. As Paul says in 1 Corinthians chapter 6: “19 Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit in you? Which you have from Yahweh, and you are not your own? 20 Indeed you have been purchased for a price; so then you honor Yahweh in your body.” The children of Israel sold themselves off in sin, as the Word of Yahweh says at Isaiah 52: “3 For thus saith the LORD, Ye have sold yourselves for nought; and ye shall be redeemed without money.” Therefore He would purchase them with His blood, and that is when their salvation occurred, as He says at Hosea 13: “14 I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction: repentance shall be hid from mine eyes.” Paul refers to this explicitly in Acts 20:28 where he mentions “the assembly of Yahweh, which He preserved for Himself by His own blood.” These Israelite people in Judaea, who were among those purchased by Christ, were being collected to this one place in their acceptance of the Word, and also turning themselves over to the community of the apostles.
Here, along with Acts 4:32-37, the example of true Christian communion, or community, is given. This must be compared to Josephus’ account of nearly identical practices among the Essenes, found at Wars 2:119-122 (2.8.2-3 in Whiston's numbering system): “119 For there are three philosophical sects among the Judaeans. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Judaeans by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 120 These Essenes reject pleasures as an evil, but esteem continence and the conquest over our passions, to be virtue. [This need for self-control over our lusts was taught by both Peter and Paul, for example at 2 Peter 1:6 and 1 Corinthians 9:25.] They neglect wedlock, but select other persons children, while they are pliable, and fit for learning, and esteem them to be of their kindred, and form them according to their own manners. 121 They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behaviour of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 122 These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative [sharing] as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who has more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,--insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty or excess of riches, but everyone's possessions are intermingled with everyone's possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren.”
This does not mean that the first Christians were Essenes, or that Essenes were Christians. Rather, it does indicate that Essenes were attempting to live in a Christian-like manner, possibly even before the advent of Christ. However it was approximately two decades after the Passion of Christ when Josephus came of age and spent three years with the Essenes, which is how he knew them so intimately, and little is known of the Essenes outside of the writings of Josephus. The historian says at line 10 of his autobiography: “10 and when I was about sixteen years old, I had a mind to make trial of the several sects that were among us. These sects are three:--The first is that of the Pharisees, the second that of the Sadducees, and the third that of the Essenes, as we have frequently told you; for I thought that by this means I might, choose the best, if I were once acquainted with them all”. He goes on to explain that from age 16 he spent three years with the Essenes. Since he was born circa 37 AD, five years after the Passion of the Christ, his sojourn with the Essenes must have begun around 53 AD, and he gives no indication that Essenes were Christians. Around this same time also, we see that there were still followers of John the Baptist, who knew nothing of the baptism of Christ, in Acts chapter 19.
There is need to further discuss other facets of this segments of Acts chapter 2, so I will repeat it here: “42 And they were firmly adhering to the teaching of the ambassadors and in the fellowship, in the breaking of bread and in prayers. 43 And fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs came through the ambassadors. 44 And all those believing were in the same place and held all things in common. 45 And possessions and belongings they sold and distributed them to all just as anyone had need. 46 And each day persevering with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at each house, they partook of food in exultation and in simplicity of heart, 47 praising Yahweh and having goodwill toward all the people. And the Prince added to those being saved daily in that place.”
The Greek word for fellowship in verse 42 is κοινωνία (2842), and the word translated in both the King James Version and the Christogenea New Testament as common at verse 44 and at the similar passage at Acts 4:32 is κοινός (2839), an adjective from which the noun κοινωνία is derived. Liddell and Scott define κοινός as “common, shared in common, opposed to ἴδιος [meaning private]… common to or with another...common to all the people, public, general....” The word κοινωνία is “communion, association, partnership, fellowship” (Liddell and Scott). The Romish church has distorted the meaning of the word communion in the minds of many people by using it to denote their mystery ritual. The word does not describe any ritual in the New Testament, but rather intends, as its primary dictionary definition states, “The act or an instance of sharing...” (according to The American Heritage College Dictionary, “communion”, 1.) The word κοινωνία is found 19 times in the New Testament, and in the King James Version it is communion on four of those occasions. The true mystery of communion is not possessed by the Romish church or any other: the true mystery is why so few realize that the body and blood of Christ are actually those Israelites sitting around the table. The word communion is related to the words common, community, and also, unfortunately, communism.
Here in Acts chapters 2 and 4 is the model Christian community described in brief, and it is something which has never endured in our history: that Christians share all of their abundance in common with their brethren. This is certainly not Marxism. The proceeds of these “possessions and belongings” which these Christians sold and distributed among their fellows did not represent every last article of their belongings or their means of sustenance. It is obvious from the context of the passage that they still had houses which they lived in, where it says that they were “breaking bread at each house”. They also obviously still maintained their method of making their living, whether they worked at a business or trade, or they would not at all have been able to eat.
Acts chapter 4 provides somewhat more insight into what is meant here: “32 And the multitude of those believing were of one heart and soul, and no one reckoned any of his belongings to be his own, but everything was common to them. 33 And with great power the ambassadors delivered the testimony of the resurrection of Prince Yahshua, and great favor was with them all. 34 Indeed neither was there any deficiency among them, for as many as were owners of farms or houses, selling them brought the proceeds of the things sold 35 and set it by the foot of the ambassadors, and they distributed to each just as any had need.”
These descriptions sound very much like the way of life which Josephus had attributed to the Essenes. These people joined this particular Christian community, and upon their joining they turned both themselves and their property over to the commonwealth of that community. They were also putting their own future well-being into the hands of that community. This was also, ostensibly, in return for the Christian instruction which they were receiving from the apostles, and those committed to the message of the Gospel would therefore work for the continued propagation of that message. Such is a leap of faith which these people undertook voluntarily. To take such a leap of faith is noble, to put your fate in the hands of a community of your Christian brethren. But we cannot lose sight of the fact that, while this is certainly what had occurred here in Judaea after this first Pentecost, and even though communion with ones fellow Christian brethren is an obligation that all Christians should meet, it is not a compulsion in this life – it is not required of Christians to live in this manner which is described here.
Rather, in Scripture there are also many examples of early Christian men who continued to own their own property and who remained self-reliant in the world – but certainly not self-reliant apart from God, and yet they were still Christians, or became Christians. Cornelius the Roman was one such individual, and he was evidently a man of considerable estate. It is not recorded that Peter required anything of him. Simon the Tanner was another (“whose house is by the sea”, Acts 10:9) and Peter stayed in his home, but he did not demand the sale or surrender of his home, and Simon continued in it after Peter departed. Philemon, the recipient of a letter from Paul, was a man of estate and a slave owner. He was also a Christian, and while Paul asserted a right to require things of him, Paul required nothing from him but instead asked that he voluntarily consider releasing Onesiphorus his slave from his bonds of that slavery. Paul also had taken up a collection from among the assemblies of Greece on behalf of the Christians of Judaea who were being persecuted by the jews. Doing this he encouraged those assemblies to contribute whatever they could, making it a point to stress that they were not compelled to give, but were being asked to give voluntarily and sincerely. This is described in his epistle to the Corinthians at 2 Corinthians chapter 8. With all of this we see that there is a balance, of Christians committed to a community, and of Christians who continued to fulfill a role in society. All have their place, their contribution and their sacrifice to make on behalf of Yahweh their God. At the restoration of our race, it is evident that all Christians shall be committed to one community: for there will only be one City of God.
In his urging the Greek Christians to give from their wealth in order to sustain the destitute Christians at Jerusalem, even though their giving was voluntary, Paul used as a model the Israelites of the Exodus who were sustained in the desert with manna. At 2 Corinthians 8:15 Paul quoted from Exodus chapter 16 when he said “As it is written, He that had gathered much had nothing over; and he that had gathered little had no lack.” Here is the passage from Exodus, from the King James Version: “15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat. 16 This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of your persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents. 17 And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less. 18 And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating.”
The Israelites of the Exodus, like those first Christians of Judaea, were a community which was ostensibly learning to rely upon one another for their lives: to love their brethren – but again, not apart from Yahweh their God, who was their true Provider. For such a community to share all things equitably is a survival mechanism, a matter of necessity. As the Word of Yahweh said in Deuteronomy chapter 8, those of Israel who acquire wealth are blessed by God in such a manner so that they dispense of it towards the furtherance of His Kingdom. Likewise, apart from the shelter of such communities, Christian Israelites should nevertheless look to provide for one another's needs, and they should be happy to do so. As Paul told the Corinthians, “Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give; not grudgingly, or of necessity [meaning compulsion]: for God loveth a cheerful giver.”
With this, we shall commence with Acts chapter 3:
III 1 Then Petros and Iohannes went up to the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth.
The Majority Text begins this verse “And in that place Peter and John”; the text follows P91, and the Codices Sinaiticus (א), Alexandrinus (A), Vaticanus (B) and Ephraemi Syri (C). The Codex Bezae has “And in those days Petros and Iohannes went up to the temple at evening at the hour of prayer, the ninth.” The ninth hour began at about 3 PM, the first hour of the day beginning at sunrise, or about 6 AM.
2And a certain man, being lame from his mother’s womb, was carried, whom they set each day by that door of the temple called Horaios for which to beg charity from those going into the temple.
Horaios is a transliteration of a Greek word (ὡραῖος, 5611) meaning beautiful, among other things. Here the word is used as a proper noun, a name for the gate, and in Greek, not in Hebrew, or certainly the Hebrew name may have been given. There is much evidence throughout scripture that Greek was common in Judaea, even where it was not the primary language of the native peoples.
3 Who seeing Petros and Iohannes going to enter into the temple, asked to receive charity. 4 And Petros gazing at him with Iohannes said “Look at us!” 5 So he engaged with them, expecting to receive something from them. 6 Then Petros said “Silver and gold belong not to me, but that which I have, this I give to you: In the Name of Yahshua Christ the Nazoraian, walk!”
In the words of Peter in Acts chapter 10 we see a reference only to “Yahshua the Nazoraian”, or as the King James Version has it, “Jesus of Nazareth”. Here and at Acts 4:10, both times the words being attributed to Peter, the fuller description “Yahshua Christ the Nazoraian” appears. Yet even in the words of Paul at Acts 22:8, Yahshua is said to refer to Himself with the simple phrase, after the King James Version, “Jesus of Nazareth”, and Paul uses it again at Acts 26:9. Therefore it is not an insult to refer to Christ merely as “Jesus of Nazareth”, but the disbelieving Judaeans, at least initially, would not use the terms Christ or Christian at all.
The Codices Alexandrinus (A), Ephraemi Syri (C), and the Majority Text end verse 6 with the exclamation “arise and walk!” The text of the Christogenea New Testament agrees with the Codices Sinaiticus (א), Vaticanus (B) and Bezae (D).
The man was begging for money, because being lame he could not support himself. Here the inference is that the gift of healing in God is far greater than any amount of money.
Isaiah 35: “4 Say to them that are of a fearful heart, Be strong, fear not: behold, your God will come with vengeance, even God with a recompence; he will come and save you. 5 Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. 6 Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing: for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert. 7 And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: in the habitation of dragons, where each lay, shall be grass with reeds and rushes.” If we see these things after the first appearance of Christ, we shall see much greater that at His return.
7 And grabbing his right hand he raised him, then immediately his feet and ankles were strengthened, 8 and springing up he stood and walked about and entered into the temple with them, walking about and leaping and praising Yahweh, 9 and all the people saw him walking about and praising Yahweh, 10 then they recognized him, that it was he sitting for charity at the Horaios gate of the temple, and they were filled with amazement and astonishment at that which happened to him. 11 Then upon his holding onto Petros and Iohannes, all the people amazed ran to them on the porch which is called Solomon’s.
The Codex Bezae (D) has verse 11 thus: “And upon Petros and Iohannes going out they ran out together seizing them, and being amazed they stood amazed on the porch which is called Solomon’s.” [Yes, the verb is repeated twice in that manuscript.] Concerning that structure known in the New Testament as Solomon's porch (John 10:23): in his translation of the writings of Josephus, William Whiston rendered this noun στοά as cloister wherever it appears. Josephus called this structure the royalστοά, and therefore in Whiston's translation it is the royal cloister where this portion of the temple is described (Antiquities 15:393).
12 And seeing it Petros responded to the people: “Men, Israelites, why do you wonder at this? Or why do you gaze at us as if our own power or piety made him to walk?
Whenever we do marvellous things, or even things which are common but beneficial, we must always give the glory to God and thank Him for what things were done through us.
Psalm 86: “10 For thou art great, and doest wondrous things: thou art God alone. 11 Teach me thy way, O LORD; I will walk in thy truth: unite my heart to fear thy name. 12 I will praise thee, O Lord my God, with all my heart: and I will glorify thy name for evermore. 13 For great is thy mercy toward me: and thou hast delivered my soul from the lowest hell.”
13 The God of Abraham and Isaak and Jakob, the God of our fathers, has honored His servant Yahshua whom you indeed handed over and denied in the presence of Pilatos who determined to release him.
The Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece (NA27), following the Codices Sinaiticus (א), Alexandrinus (A), Ephraemi Syri (C) and Bezae (D), has “The God of Abraham and the God of Isaak and the God of Jakob”; the text of the Christogenea New Testament agrees with the Codex Vaticanus (B), the surviving fragment of the 5th century manuscript known as 0236, and the Majority Text. Whenever the oldest and best manuscripts diverge, such as the Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus here, it is difficult to determine which may be the more reliable reading. This translator would think it foolish to insist that one or the other must always be followed, which is why translations are always best accompanied with copious notes.
The phrase His servant Yahshua may have been rendered His son Yahshua. The Greek word παῖς is literally a child, but often even in the New Testament used metaphorically of a servant. In his narratives Peter consistently absolves Pilate of any guilt in the matter of Christ, and lays the blame for the crime of the crucifixion at the feet of the entire nation of the Judaeans, whether individuals within the nation were consenting, culpable, or not. Therefore neither Pilate nor the Romans cannot ever be justly blamed for the murder of Christ!
14 But you denied the holy and righteous man and requested a murderous man [meaning Barabbas] to be pardoned for you. 15 Then you killed the Founder of Life whom Yahweh raised from among the dead, of whom we are witnesses.
Yahshua Christ is the Founder of Life. The Greek word ἀρχηγός is an adjective meaning beginning or originating. As a Substantive, a noun, it is a founder, prince, chief, first cause or originator. In the Parable of the Wheat and the Tares, Yahshua took credit for being the planter of the Wheat, and therefore He must be Yahweh God Himself incarnate as one of His Own creation, as a man, as so many other Scriptures insist.
16 And by the faith of His Name, he whom you see and know His Name has strengthened, and the faith which is through Him has given to him this soundness before all of you. 17 And now, brethren, I know that you acted ignorantly, just as also your rulers.
1 Timothy 1: “12 And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry; 13 Who was before a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious: but I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. 14 And the grace of our Lord was exceeding abundant with faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.”
Peter says here that both the Israelites and their rulers acted ignorantly, and this is certainly true. Peter does not necessarily have pity for or seek to convert them all. Whether they were vessels of destruction (Romans chapter 9), those children of the devil who do the works of their father (John 8:44), or whether they were vessels of mercy, those children of Israel who may have thought that they were doing righteously but who were actually sinning grievously, they had nevertheless acted in ignorance of the Truth. Paul explains this in 1 Corinthians chapter 2.
1 Corinthians 2: “6 Now we speak wisdom among the accomplished; but wisdom not of this age, nor of those governing this age, who are being done away with. 7 Rather we speak wisdom of Yahweh, that had been hidden in a mystery, which Yahweh had predetermined before the ages for our honor, 8 which not one of the governors of this age has known, (since if they had known, they would not have crucified the Authority of that honor,) 9 but just as it is written, “Things which eye did not see, and ear did not hear, and came not into the heart of man, those things Yahweh has prepared for them that love Him,” 10 yet to us Yahweh reveals them through the Spirit; for the Spirit inquires of all things, even the depths of Yahweh. ”
18 But Yahweh, the things which He announced beforehand through the mouths of all the prophets for His Christ to suffer, has fulfilled thusly. 19 Therefore you must repent and turn towards that which blots out your errors,
Even Israelites who took part in Deicide, the murder of Christ, would be forgiven by turning to Christ. All Israel shall indeed be saved. Only Christ blots out our errors. He is the fulfillment of the law which did not keep us from sin.
Colossians 1: “9 For this reason we also, from the day in which we heard, do not cease from praying and requesting on your behalf that you would be filled with the knowledge of His will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, 10 to walk worthily of the Prince in all complaisance, in every good deed bearing fruit and growing in the knowledge of Yahweh, 11 with all power being strengthened according to the might of His honor for all endurance and long-suffering with joy, 12 being thankful to the Father, who qualifies us for that share of the inheritance of the saints in the light, 13 who has rescued us from the authority of darkness, and instead gave us into the kingdom of the Son of His love, 14 in whom we have redemption: the dismissal of errors. ”
Colossians 2: “13 And you, being dead in transgressions and in the foreskin of your flesh, you He made alive together with Him, forgiving us all those transgressions. 14 Having wiped out the handwriting against us in the ordinances which were opposed to us, even this He has taken out of the way, nailing it to the cross.”
20 that the times of relief may come from the presence of Yahweh and He would send Him determined for you: Christ Yahshua, 21 whom it is indeed necessary for heaven to receive until the times of restoration of all which Yahweh had spoken through the mouths of the saints His prophets from of old.
These promised times of relief represent the restoration of the Kingdom of God promised to the children of Israel, this is the same thing which Paul is explaining of the “rest” of God which he makes an illustration of in Hebrews chapters 3 and 4.
Hebrews 3: “7 Therefore, just as the Holy Spirit says: 'Today if you would hear His voice, 8 do not harden your hearts, as in the rebellion in the day of trial in the desert, 9 where your fathers had made trial in scrutiny and saw my works 10 forty years. On which account I had been angry with this race, and said: ‘always do they wander in heart, and they have not known My ways.’ 11 So I have sworn in My wrath, whether they should enter into My rest.' 12 You beware, brethren, that at no time will there be in any one of you a wicked heart of disbelief, in which is revolt from Yahweh who lives. 13 Rather encourage yourselves each and every day, so long as this day bears a name, that not any one of you are hardened in deceit of wrongdoing. 14 For we have become partners of the Christ, if indeed to begin with we possess that of the assurance steadfast until the end. 15 In respect of which it is said: 'Today if you would hear His voice, do not harden your hearts, as in the rebellion.' 16 For some hearing had rebelled, though not all of those coming out of Egypt with Moses. 17 And with whom was He angry forty years? Was it not with those who failed, whose bodies fell in the desert? 18 And to whom did He swear would not enter into His rest, if not to those who would not comply? 19 And we see that they had not been able to enter because of disbelief.”
Hebrews 4: “1 Therefore we should fear that at no time, a promise being left to enter into His rest, any one of you would seem to have fallen short. 2 For even we have been announcing the good message among ourselves just as they also, but the word of the report did not benefit those not being united in the faith with those who heard. 3 For we who are believing enter into that rest, just as He spoke: 'So I have sworn in My wrath, whether they should enter into My rest.' And indeed those works have been done from the foundation of the Society. 4 Somewhere He spoke in this manner concerning the seventh day: 'And Yahweh rested in the seventh day from all of His works.' 5 And with this, again: 'Whether they should enter into My rest.' 6 Therefore since it remains for some to enter into it, and those who formerly heard the good message did not enter in on account of incredulity, 7 again He determines a certain day, in David saying 'Today,' after so long a time just as it is said before hand: 'Today if you would hear His voice, do not harden your hearts.' 8 For if Joshua had given them rest, He would not have spoken concerning another after that day. 9 So a period of rest remains for the people of Yahweh. 10 He who is entering into His rest, he would also rest from his works, as Yahweh from His own.”
These “times of relief” which Peter mentions here are this very “rest” which Paul explains to the Hebrews as awaiting the children of Israel: their restoration in the Kingdom of God, which they failed to achieve in the days of Joshua. Today Christian Israel still awaits the fulfillment of that very promise.
2 Chronicles 7:14: "If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land."
22 While Moses said that ‘Yahweh your God shall raise up a prophet for you from among your brethren, even as me. Of Him you shall hear according to all things, as many as He shall speak to you.
The Codex Bezae (D) has “While Moses said to our fathers”; The Majority Text as “For while Moses said to the fathers”; The text of the Christogenea New Testament agrees with the Codices Sinaiticus (א), Alexandrinus (A), Vaticanus (B) and Ephraemi Syri (C). Here in verses 22 and 23 Peter is paraphrasing Deuteronomy 18:15-19.
Deuteronomy 18: “15 The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken; 16 According to all that thou desiredst of the LORD thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not. 17 And the LORD said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have spoken. 18 I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. 19 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.”
Deuteronomy 18:15-19 is a dual prophecy. It speaks both of Joshua the Old Testament prophet who succeeded Moses, and of Christ who has the same given name and who has Himself become the metaphorical successor to the laws of Moses.
23 And it shall be that every soul which would not hear that prophet shall be utterly destroyed from among the people.’
From Hebrews 5:9: “He has become Author of eternal deliverance to all those who obey Him”. The Gospel is that which separates the wheat from the tares from the very beginning.
24 Yet even all the prophets from Samuel and those who follow, as many as have spoken, also announced these days. 25 You are the sons of the prophets and of the covenant which Yahweh arranged with your fathers, saying to Abraham: ‘And in your offspring shall all the clans of the earth be blessed.’
With these words it must not be forgotten, that Peter is not merely addressing Judaeans and their converts here, which were present in the beginning of Pentecost and are addressed from Acts 2:10 and 2:14, but specifically those who are Israelites – regardless of whoever else may have been present to hear him – as he states explicitly at the beginning of his discourse at Acts 2:22. At Acts 2:22, and again here in this discourse from Acts 3:12, Peter refines his intended audience to Israel alone. Here Peter is specifically addressing Israelites, regardless of whomever else may be present at the temple. Judaea is a Roman province, and Judaean is a political designation. Israelite is an ethnic, genealogical designation which excludes the Edomites and other aliens who became citizens of Judaea in the centuries between the Testaments.
The promise to Abraham that “in your offspring shall all the clans of the earth be blessed” is found in various forms at Genesis 12:3, 22:18, 26:4, and 28:14.
The Greek word πατριά (3965), which is “lineage, pedigree, by the father’s side...a clan, ” (Liddell & Scott) is rendered “clans” here, being in the plural, in an attempt to stress the fact that each clan, or family, has a common lineage with the others, as is the context: for only the families of Genesis chapter 10, the Adamic descendants of Noah, are intended. After listing all of the descendants of Noah, Genesis 10:32 states “32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations: and by these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.” No man has any right to expand on this listing of the “families of the earth” or the “nations divided in the earth” in order to attempt to include any race of people not originally listed. The non-Adamic races have no part in the listing of Genesis 10, and they therefore have no part in the promises of blessing to Abraham recorded only two chapters later in our Bibles.
We discussed this at great length in our exposition of the Book of Amos, in part 6 where we discussed Amos 3:2. In that passage, Yahweh God states to the children of Israel: “You only have I known of all the families of the earth: therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities.” Likewise, they alone comprise Peter's intended audience here.
26 To you first Yahweh, raising His servant, sent Him blessing you, by which to turn each back from your wickedness.”
Zechariah 12: “7 The LORD also shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David and the glory of the inhabitants of Jerusalem do not magnify themselves against Judah.” Yahweh willing, we shall expound on this topic in the latter parts of the Book of Acts, in a discussion of Paul's injunction to go into Makedonia to preach the Gospel before he was permitted to preach it in Asia.